All Courses by Category

All courses by category

Accounting courses

ACC 200 Principles of Accounting 3
This course will introduce students to the fundamental concepts of financial and managerial accounting.

ACC 201 Principles of Financial Accounting 3
Development of principles underlying financial statements and accounting procedures. Basic accounting terminology and concepts of financial accounting. Emphasis on learning and applying the basic accounting framework through the full accounting cycle as well as preparation of basic financial statements. Prerequisite: completion of the quantitative literacy requirement in the core curriculum.

ACC 202 Principles of Managerial Accounting 3
Development of principles used in planning, controlling and evaluating organizational decision making. Primary topics are cost behavior, costing systems, profitability analysis and budgeting. At the conclusion of this course students will be able to conduct cost-volume-profit analysis, compute break-even points, prepare budgets, conduct variance analysis, do job costing, relevant cost analysis and capital budgeting. Prerequisite: Acc 201.

ACC 209 Field Experience 3 (1-3)
Work experience in, or student observation of, a business enterprise or problem. Each student's project is individually arranged with the instructor and must be approved prior to enrolling in this course. The course is designed to integrate and apply theoretical learning with experience. Students enrolling in this course must be an accounting major or minor and must have completed at least 12 hours of accounting program requirements. This course is repeatable.

ACC 210 Accounting Information Systems 3
Utilize an accounting system using a popular business software package. Gain understanding of internal control systems and organizational relationships with utilization of a computerized business system. Concentrates on the transaction cycles of cash receipts, cash disbursements, purchasing, sales, inventory control and management reporting. Prerequisite: Acc 201.

ACC 301 Cost Accounting 3
A study of how accounting information is used and communicated by managers to plan, control and evaluate decisions. Primary topics include cost behavior, cost-volume-profit analysis, costing systems, variance analysis, cost-allocation issues, budgeting, and pricing decisions. This course is a continuation of the principles learned in Acc 202. Case studies are used extensively in this course. Prerequisites: Acc 202, Bus 220.

ACC 302 Intermediate Accounting I 3
Development of accounting theory and practice by critically analyzing each element of the financial statement. Concentration on a conceptual approach to accounting information and reporting. Courses must be taken in sequence. Prerequisite: Acc 201 and 210.

ACC 303 Intermediate Accounting II 3
Development of accounting theory and practice by critically analyzing each element of the financial statement. Concentration on a conceptual approach to accounting information and reporting. Courses must be taken in sequence. Prerequisite: Acc 302.

ACC 304 Individual Income Taxation 3
A comprehensive study of the current income tax laws as they apply to individuals and sole-proprietorships. Emphasis is placed on applying the tax laws for tax return preparation. Students are also introduced to tax research and tax planning.

ACC 375 Topics: 3 (1-4)
Depth study on a selected topic in accounting. Intended to accommodate student interest and/or faculty expertise in specific accounting issues. Issues may vary from year to year.

ACC 400 Selected Readings 1 (1-4)
Special topics for majors and minors.

ACC 405 Auditing 3
Study of the attest function and the responsibility of a Certified Public Accountant as an independent auditor of financial information. Prerequisite: Acc 303.

ACC 408 Applied Accounting 3 (1-12)
This internship is an employment experience in a business enterprise. Each student's internship is individually arranged and approved by the instructor prior to enrolling in the course. The experience is designed to integrate and apply theoretical learning with experience. Students must complete at least 40 hours of major requirements and be an accounting major prior to enrolling in this course. This course is repeatable. Prerequisite: Bus 307.

ACC 409 Accounting Internship 12 (6-12)
This internship is a full-time position in a public accounting firm. Each student's internship is individually arranged and approved by the instructor prior to enrolling in the course. The experience is designed to integrate and apply theoretical learning with experience. Students must complete at least 40 hours of major requirements and be an accounting major prior to enrolling in this course. This course is repeatable. Prerequisite: Bus 307.

ACC 434 Business Income Taxation 3
Study of the current tax laws applicable to C corporations, S corporations, partnerships and limited-liability companies. Students are introduced to basic tax preparation elements for these business entities including completion of basic book to tax reconciliations and selected tax forms. Prerequisite: Acc 303.

Art courses

ART 101 Drawing 3
Fundamentals of drawing and visual composition as applied to pictorial organization. Emphasis placed on rendering skills -- the use of line, value and perspective -- balanced by expressive approaches using a variety of media. Encouraged as a first course in art.

ART 108 Digital Design 3
This course in visual expression and communication will introduce students to relevant computer programs including Adobe InDesign, Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. Through exercises, projects and critiques, students will learn both creative visual design and technical aspects of computer-generated images and composition.

ART 201 Art and the Sacred 3
How does visual art reinforce, expand or contradict our ideas of what is holy? In this course, students will strengthen their skills in interpreting visual art. They will look for parallel and divergent structures and understandings in theology, literature, theater, and music. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

ART 202 Painting 3
An introductory course in acrylic painting emphasizing technique, color theory, and composition. Skill and control are developed through numerous studio activities.

ART 203 Watercolor 3
An introductory course in watercolor painting emphasizing technique, color theory, and composition. Skill and control of the medium are developed through numerous studio activities.

ART 204 Ceramics 3
In the first term, students use a variety of methods to create forms in clay, including hand building and the potter's wheel. Both sculptural and functional forms, glazing and firing are learned.

ART 205 Figure Drawing 3
Focus on the human body using a variety of drawing media. Course emphasizes a visual understanding of anatomy through both rendering and expressive approaches. Prerequisite: Art 101.

ART 206 Sculpture 3
Exploration of sculpture media and techniques. Includes verbal interpretation and research of sculptors.

ART 207 Printmaking 3
An introductory course in relief and intaglio-type printing techniques. Skill and control of the media are developed through numerous studio activities.

ART 208 Typography 3
Students are introduced to the elements and principles of graphic design/visual communication. Emphasis will be placed on the aesthetic use of typography and image in the development of projects in publication, poster and advertising design. This course will also provide an historical overview of the influences and movements in the field of typography. Prerequisite: Art 108.

ART 210 What is Beauty? 3
This course uses the visual arts as a starting point for exploring the nature of beauty. Students will develop their appreciation for multiple art forms and explore what beauty means to them personally through hands on creation of art, attendance of live events (music, theatre and art events), and the development of a personal philosophy of beauty. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

ART 211 Making the Spiritual Physical 3
What does religious art and architecture tell us about the theology and worldview of its creators? This class is a comparison study of world religions and how believers express what is spiritual and sacred through what they make. Examining religious objects and imagery allows us to understand, appreciate, and gain new perspectives on the faith of others as well as our own. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

ART 217 Jewelry 3
Three-dimensional design in metals including basic fabrication techniques, silver soldering, cold connections, working with found materials, surface treatments, and finishing. Includes study of historical and contemporary jewelry and metalwork.

ART 241 History of Art I 3
Historical survey of art from prehistory to Gothic and non-Western art. Lecture. Offered alternate years with Art 242.

ART 242 History of Art II 3
Historical survey of art from the Renaissance to the mid-20th century. Lecture. Offered alternate years with Art 241.

ART 255 Photography 3
(Cross-listed from Comm 255) A first course including camera work, digital image workflow and printing. Technical fluency, visual composition, photojournalistic approaches, and expression are components of the course. Students must provide a digital camera on which f-stop and shutter speed can be controlled.

ART 302 Painting II 3
Course emphasizes individual investigation of subject matter, style, and techniques leading to personal and unique expressions using acrylic or watercolor paint. Prerequisite: Art 202 or 203.

ART 304 Ceramics II 3
Second-term students continue skill and concept development. More advanced work in glazes and firing is also required. Prerequisite: Art 204.

ART 305 Drawing II 3 (1-3)
Course emphasizes individual investigation of subject matter, style, and techniques leading to personal and unique expressions using drawing media. Prerequisite: Art 101 and 205.

ART 306 Sculpture II 3 (1-3)
Exploration of sculpture media and techniques. Includes verbal interpretation and research of sculptors. Prerequisite: Art 206.

ART 307 Printmaking II 3 (1-3)
Course emphasizes individual investigation of subject matter, style, and techniques leading to personal and unique expressions using printmaking. Prerequisite: Art 207.

ART 308 Graphic Design 3
Emphasis will be placed on corporate design. Students will explore logo design and carry the visual through to stationery, graphic standards manual, and various other marketing projects. Production standards for layouts, inks and paper, printing processes, and color theory will also be studied. Students are encouraged to complete ART 208 in advance of this course. Prerequisite: Art 108 or consent of instructor.

ART 312 Teaching Visual Arts 3 (3-4)
A methods course introducing the issues, concepts, philosophy and content of teaching art for art education students (K-12) or others with an interest in teaching art in other settings. Emphasis on curriculum and lesson planning, reading in art education, art classroom management and evaluation. Includes field work. All art majors strongly encouraged to take this course. Visual art education majors must take it for 4 credits; others may take it for 3 credits.

ART 315 Photography II 3
The study of photography as an expressive art form. Includes further study in artistic, technical, and/or commercial areas of photo imaging. Prerequisite: Comm/Art 255.

ART 317 Jewelry II 3 (1-3)
Three-dimensional design in metals that builds on techniques learned in Art 217, with a focus on continued development of design and construction skills and further technical instruction in advanced jewelry forms. Includes study of historical and contemporary jewelry and metalwork. Prerequisite: Art 217.

ART 330 Media Workshop: 3
A course that explores in depth a single medium or process such as enameling, metal casting, raku, bookmaking, papermaking, weaving, kiln building, silk screen and airbrush. Prerequisite: Art 202 or 204.

ART 343 Contemporary Art History 3
A survey of major art movements, architecture and artists since the mid-20th century. Offered every other year.

ART 355 Arts in London 4
(Cross-listed from Thea 355) A May term class that encompasses theater, art and music study and experiences in London, England. Class activities include morning lectures, visits to art galleries, attending music and theater performances, and day trips to Coventry, Stratford-upon-Avon, Salisbury and other locations. Daily writing assignments and a major project required. SST alternate course. Offered in alternate years. Extra cost.

ART 375 Animation 3
(Cross-listed from Comm 375) Focuses on digital animation. Students will learn the skills needed to bring characters to life as well as create visual effects using computer software. Issues in the international contemporary visual culture will also be studied. Prerequisite: Comm 326.

ART 402 Advanced Painting 3 (1-3)
Course emphasizes individual investigation of subject matter, style, and techniques to develop a personal body of artwork using acrylic or watercolor paint. Prerequisite: Art 101, 107, and 302.

ART 403 Advanced Watercolor 3 (1-3)
Emphasizes independent investigation leading to personal expressions. Prerequisite: Art 303 and Art 101 or 107.

ART 404 Advanced Ceramics 3 (1-3)
Advanced students develop personal styles. Prerequisite: Art 304 and Art 101 or 107.

ART 405 Advanced Drawing 3 (1-3)
Course emphasizes individual investigation of subject matter, style, and techniques to develop a personal body of artwork using drawing media. Prerequisite: Art 305.

ART 406 Advanced Sculpture 3 (1-3)
Exploration of sculpture media and techniques. Includes verbal interpretation and research of sculptors. Prerequisite: Art 306 and Art 101 or 107.

ART 407 Advanced Printmaking 3 (1-3)
Course emphasizes individual investigation of subject matter, style, and techniques to develop a personal body of artwork using printmaking. Prerequisite: Art 307 and Art 101 or 107.

ART 408 Advanced Graphic Design 3 (1-3)
This course expands on previous graphic design knowledge and skills. It emphasizes research and analysis throughout the design processes, leading to creative conceptualization and working design/communication solutions. Projects are chosen to help portfolio development. Prerequisite: Art 208 and ART 308.

ART 409 Internship 2
Supervised placement in an arts business or other organization that is relevant to the student's career interest. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. For art majors only.

ART 410 Senior Seminar 3
Students will discuss practical, professional, and ethical dimensions of their Goshen College education. They will engage in a common reading experience, conduct a final project, interview professionals in their aspirational fields, and prepare a capstone portfolio that reflects designated learning outcomes.

ART 411 Senior Exhibit 1
A senior exhibition emphasizing studio work in an area in which the student has specialized and developed a personal style. Course includes gallery installation, publicity and education relating to the exhibit. Prerequisite: Six hours in medium chosen for exhibit and consent of instructor. For art majors only.

ART 412 Special Projects 1 (1-3)
Independent self-directed work or apprenticeship at an advanced level beyond that which is offered in regular courses or an internship related to an art concentration area. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

ART 415 Advanced Photography 3 (2-3)
Students follow individualized plans of study to prepare work for exhibition, or web use, and to develop skills needed prior to a field assignment in commercial or journalist photography. Prerequisite: Art 315 and Art 101 or 107.

ART 417 Advanced Jewelry 3 (1-3)
Three-dimensional design in metals that builds on techniques learned in Art 217 and 317, with a focus on development of design skills, independent problem solving skills, and further technical instruction in advanced jewelry forms or enameling. Incudes study of historical and contemporary jewelry and metalwork. Prerequisite: Art 317.

American Sign Language courses

ASL 101 American Sign Language 1 4
Using a total immersion approach, this course introduces novice level vocabulary as well as basic conversational competence and grammatical knowledge. The course introduces basic grammatical aspects including those unique to ASL. Culture and literature aspects are covered. Contact with the Deaf community is encouraged to enhance linguistic and cultural knowledge.

ASL 102 American Sign Language 2 4
Using a total immersion approach, this course emphasizes further development of comprehension and production skills using basic vocabulary, conversational competence and grammatical knowledge. Culture and literature aspects are covered. Contact with the Deaf community is encouraged to enhance linguistic and cultural knowledge. Prerequisite: ASL 101 or equivalent, with consent of instructor.

ASL 103 ASL for SST 1 4
Emphasis on basic communication skills in the target language and culture. Normally offered only on SST. Prerequisite ASL 102 or equivalent.

ASL 104 Deaf Culture 3
This course introduces cultural identity, core values, group norms, communication, and language. Designed for students who may or may not have had any previous experience or exposure, this course will answer some of the most commonly asked questions about the Deaf community and culture. Views and perspectives of and from the Deaf community will be explored, along with the implications of cultural differences when the Deaf and hearing worlds overlap. Serves as an SST alternative course.

ASL 201 American Sign Language 3 4
Using a total immersion approach, this course continues development of comprehension and production skills using intermediate vocabulary, conversational competence and grammatical knowledge. Culture and literature aspects are covered. Contact with the Deaf community is encouraged to enhance linguistic and cultural knowledge. Prerequisite: ASL 102 or equivalent with consent of instructor.

ASL 202 American Sign Lang 4 4
Using a total immersion approach, this course continues development of comprehension and production skills using intermediate to advanced vocabulary, conversational competence and grammatical knowledge. Culture and literature aspects are covered. Contact with the Deaf community is encouraged to enhance linguistic and culture knowledge. Prerequisite: ASL 201 or equivalent, with consent of instructor.

ASL 203 ASL for SST 2 4
Continuation of grammar practice with emphasis on ASL practice. Normally offered only on SST. Prerequisite:ASL 201 or equivalent.

ASL 300 Gallaudet Semester 12
Gallaudet Semester for students in the Deaf Studies major.

ASL 307 American Sign Language 5 4
Using a total immersion approach, this course emphasizes further development of comprehension and production skills using advanced vocabulary, discourse competence and grammatical knowledge. Culture and literature aspects are covered. Contact with the Deaf community is encouraged to enhance linguistic and cultural knowledge. Prerequisite: ASL 202 or equivalent, with consent of instructor.

ASL 320 Deaf History 3
The history and culture of the Signed Language communities and Deaf people are very rich and diverse. This course provides an overview of the education of the deaf from prehistoric times to the present. Significant contributions made by Deaf people in North America will be analyzed. Current issues in the Deaf community will be discussed in both a historical context and from a deaf perspective. Prerequisite: ASL 201 or consent of instructor.

Bible courses

BIBL 201 Elementary New Testament Greek 3
Basic vocabulary, verb structure and grammar of New Testament Greek; reading and translation in first chapters of the Gospel of John. Prerequisite: CORE 120.

BIBL 204 Hebrew Language and Culture 3
Students will work through a standard grammar of biblical Hebrew, building a working vocabulary of 600-800 words. Representative selections from the major genres of biblical Hebrew literature will be introduced. Attention will also be devoted to the cultural settings reflected in the texts. Offered alternating years with Bibl 201.

BIBL 205 Hebrew Scriptures:Why suffering? 3
Why do bad things happen to good people? This course will consider the problematic of human suffering and divine justice from the perspective of ancient Near Eastern, biblical and contemporary texts. Within the wisdom tradition of the Bible, the book of Job evokes this cornerstone of the human dilemma. It critically engages the wisdom traditions of the ancient Near East and the Psalms of lament. It and provides a framework within which conventional assumptions about divine justice (theodicy) are challenged and the search for a viable moral order might be reestablished. Contextual depth will be achieved by exploring texts from the Ancient Near East (Ludlul bel nemeqi, The Babylonian Theodicy), the Bible (The Levite's concubine, Hagar, Jeremiah) and the Apocrypha (Tobit). Prerequisite: CORE 120 Engaging the Bible.

BIBL 213 Stories of the Early Church 3
This course will look at the first three centuries of the early church. Students will participate in constructing coherent and nuanced narratives by applying the principles of the Jewish tradition of midrash (retellings of Biblical stories for contemporary audiences) and effective contemporary story telling to Christian narratives using modern historiography, the insights of cultural anthropological studies, memory studies, and hagiography (biographies of saints). A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

BIBL 300 Jesus and the Gospels 3
Study of the life and teachings of Jesus, focusing on the proclamation of the reign of God and Jesus' messianic identity as the Son of God. Examination of Jesus in his historical setting will be balanced with discussions of Jesus' call to discipleship and theological interpretations of the Gospels. Prerequisite: CORE 120 or consent of instructor. Bible and Religion majors are encouraged to add a one-hour depth credit.

BIBL 301 Hebrew Scripture: 3
Content of this course will alternate every other year with one of the following topics.
Prophets. A study of the important corpus of prophetic literature from the Hebrew Bible. Attention is given to historical, social, literary and theological features of the texts. Broad surveys of the prophetic writings will set the stage for close reading of selected oracles. Balancing the ethos of the Hebrew prophets with the demands these texts place on the contemporary audience keeps the Scriptural nature of this foundational material constantly in view.
Wisdom and Psalms. Alongside law, history and prophecy, the wisdom and poetry sections of biblical Hebrew writings give expression to the formative power of this significant literary, theological and social movement in ancient Israel. Primary attention will be given to the universal perspectives reflected in the books of Ecclesiastes, Proverbs and Job, with selective attention given to the wisdom corpus of the Apocrypha. Significant time will also be devoted to the laments, hymns, and pilgrimage songs of the book of Psalms. Prerequisite: CORE 120.

BIBL 309 Major Book 3
A study of a major biblical book as announced. Possible offerings include: Genesis, Gospel of John, Revelation of John. The course will examine the theology, major themes, literary structure and social world of the book being studied. It will introduce students to various methodological approaches to the book, current scholarship, as well as the place of the book within both the canon and contemporary religious thought. Prerequisite: CORE 120.

BIBL 321 Biblical Themes of Peace 3
A study of the themes and concepts that provide a biblical basis for nonretaliation and peace making. Particular attention is given to the nature of God's sovereignty, forgiveness versus vengeance and love of enemies. Prerequisite: CORE 120.

BIBL 324 Women in the Bible 3
An examination of the characterization of women in Old and New Testament narratives, their role in biblical societies and the early church and their representation in Judeo-Christian culture, particularly our contemporary culture. The course draws upon current research and exegetical strategies in Biblical studies. Prerequisite: CORE 120.

Biology courses

BIOL 115 Ecology and Evolution 4
An introductory course that examines fundamental principles related to the evolution of life on earth and the ecological relationships between living things and their environment. The course integrates ecological and evolutionary principles within field investigations that teach skills in research design and analysis. Offered every fall. Pre or corequisite: Quantitative literacy.

BIOL 120 Cell Biology and Genetics 4
An introductory course that explores the cell as a complex and dynamic system shaped by its environment and genetic legacy. Gene regulation and expression, cell signaling, and cell division will be discussed, as well as the ethics of manipulating the cell for human applications. Both classical and modern genetic technologies will be experienced in the laboratory. Offered every spring.

BIOL 130 Organismal Biology 4
An introductory course that integrates study of plant and animal forms to provide a broader understanding of the unity and diversity of life on earth. Students will gain insight into the basic principles of structure and function evident in complex life that indicate a common evolutionary history. This course will survey the physiological systems that govern life, with special emphasis on vascular plants and vertebrate animals (including humans). Offered every spring.

BIOL 155 Medical Terminology 1
Basic terminology required of the allied health professional regarding anatomy and physiology, pathology, special procedures, laboratory procedures, and pharmacology. Greek and Latin prefixes, suffixes, word roots, and combining forms for a medical vocabulary foundation. Medical symbols and abbreviations also included. Offered summer online.

BIOL 200 Zoology 4
A survey of representative animal groups from Protozoa through the Chordata. Includes anatomy, morphology, systematics, life histories and ecology. Three lectures, one three-hour lab. Prerequisite: Biol 130 or permission of instructor. Offered spring of even years.

BIOL 201 Botany 4
An introduction to the fundamental principles of plant biology, including structure, function, systematics, reproduction, and diversity. Three lectures and one three-hour lab. Prerequisite: Biol 130 or permission of instructor. Offered May term of even years at Merry Lea.

BIOL 203 Human Anatomy & Physiology I 4
A study of the organ systems of the human body, their gross and microscopic structure and their functions. Laboratory demonstrations and dissections. Three lectures, one three-hour lab. Prerequisite: one semester of college chemistry. Offered every spring.

BIOL 204 Human Anatomy & Physiology II 3
A study of the organ systems of the human body, their gross and microscopic structure and their functions. Laboratory demonstrations and dissections. Three lectures, one three-hour lab. With permission of the instructor, biology majors may take Biol 204 for two hours of lecture only. Prerequisite: Biol 203 and one semester of college chemistry. Offered every May term.

BIOL 205 Pollinators in Peril 3
What is causing a rapid decline in global pollinator populations? The answer is of immediate concern because many human crops are pollinated by bee, butterfly, bird, or bat species. Recent bee declines will be used as a model to understand the multiple forces impacting all pollinators. Labs will involve hands-on work with bee hives, in addition to field experiments. A Natural World course in the Goshen Core. Pre or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy. Offered every fall.

BIOL 206 Microbiology 3
A general study of microorganisms and their relations to health and disease, with practical applications valuable to the nurse. Includes the characteristics and activities of microorganisms, procedures for sterilization and disinfection; methods of growing and studying organisms; and techniques of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. Three lectures, one two-hour lab. Prerequisite: one semester of college chemistry. Offered every fall.

BIOL 207 Roots of Environmental Crisis 3
What are the roots of our current environmental crisis? Can religious, economic, cultural, political, and/or biological worldviews help us understand the challenges? The course will analyze our local use of natural resources (both on campus and in Goshen city). The course will center on giving students opportunities to propose (and implement) restorative solutions. A Natural World course in the Goshen Core. Pre or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy. Offered every spring.

BIOL 208 Geology, Meteorology & Climate Sci 4
An earth science introductory course that examines the earth's geological processes (earth's interior, tectonic activity, and surface geology including soil formation and erosion processes), meteorological patterns (atmospheric formation, weather dynamics, and seasons), and climate dynamics (paleoclimate, anthropogenic influences, and future predictions). Required for Life Science Education certification. Includes a weekly lab. Offered fall of even years.

BIOL 209 Field Experience 3 (1-3)
Practical experience in biology, typically in a relevant off-campus experience. Off-campus positions may include various types of work (employed or volunteer) in university, hospital or other medical, veterinary, agricultural and industrial facilities or nature centers and camps. Students are encouraged to develop their own ideas. Taken only as credit/no credit. Prerequisite: consent of advisor.

BIOL 210 Biology of the Sea 4
An introductory course that immerses students in exploring the ecology of the Florida Keys ecosystem. Suitable for non-majors. Biology majors should sign up for Biol 304. An off-campus course taught at the J.N. Roth Marine Biology station in Florida every May term. Prerequisite: application process and consent of instructor. Moderate extra cost.

BIOL 212 Empathic Animals 3
Explores conflict, violence and peace in human interaction with animal life. Perspectives from animal behavior, sociology, ethics, religion, agriculture, and conservation will illumine the precarious balance humanity faces in sustaining or exploiting lives that share this planet with us. A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core.

BIOL 222 Soil Science 4
An introduction to the importance of soils in agricultural, ecological, and social systems. Topics include soil formation; physical, chemical, and biological properties; soil classification and mapping; soil productivity; and relationship between soil health and climate. Weekly labs will emphasize practical skills related to soil classification, physical and chemical measurements, and soil management. Offered May of odd years.

BIOL 232 Oceanography 3
An introduction to the physical, chemical, biological, and geological processes that structure ocean systems. Topics include biogeochemical cycling, ocean currents, global tectonics, waves, tides, coastal processes, primary productivity, and climate-ocean feedback systems. Attention will be given to understanding how human communities interact with oceans. Offered spring of even years.

BIOL 235 Geographic Information Systems 4
An applied introduction to the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, which allows analysis of complex data in spatial formats. During weekly labs, the course will emphasize hands-on projects that combine map-making with data analysis, to address questions in a variety of fields. The course is appropriate for students from many disciplines, including sociology, history, ecology, and environmental science. Offered fall of odd years.

BIOL 300 Microbial Biology 4
Study of the anatomy, physiology and ecology of microorganisms, particularly bacteria, protists, and viruses. Lab instruction will include techniques involved in isolating, culturing and quantifying microbial organisms found in soil, water, food, and the human body. Three lectures, one three-hour lab. Prerequisites: Biol 115, 120, and 130. Offered spring of odd years.

BIOL 302 Developmental Biology 4
Principles of developmental biology with the study of developing systems in both vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms as a focus. Material covers a range of topics including classic embryology, developmental genetics, cancer and aging. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: Biol 115, 120 and 130. Offered fall of odd years.

BIOL 303 Vertebrate Physiology 4
A concentrated study of the principles of vertebrate physiology. Material covered includes various topics of significance in the biomedical field, such as cellular, nervous, muscular and cardiovascular physiology. Laboratory activities will cover the same topics. Three lectures and one laboratory session per week. Prerequisites: Biol 115, 120, and 130 or Biol 203, 204. Offered fall of even years.

BIOL 304 Marine Biology 4
An intensive field-based class that explores the marine ecology of the Florida Keys. Includes a comprehensive collaborative field research project. An off-campus course taught at the J. N. Roth Marine Biology station in Florida every May term. Prerequisites: Biol 115, application process and consent of instructors. Moderate extra cost.

BIOL 308 General Entomology 4
A general study of insect structure, development, classification and habits. Laboratory sessions particularly directed at identification of insects and their economic roles. Three lectures and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite: Biol 115. Biol 200 strongly recommended. Offered May term of odd years.

BIOL 311 Advanced Molecular Genetics 4
The study of modern biotechnology, genes, and genomes. Gene expression and cell physiology will be explored. Genetic tools that diagnose human disease and determine levels of gene flow in populations will be utilized. Topics of interest include linkage analysis, cancer genetics, microarrays, genomic imprinting, DNA fingerprinting, and genome sequencing. Labs include DNA cloning, RNA isolation, protein manipulation, ELISA, and blotting. Prerequisite: Biol 120. Offered spring of odd years.

BIOL 319 Human Pathophysiology 3
An introductory study of the biology of human diseases. Examines causes of disease and bodily response processes. A survey of both disorders that affect the body as a whole and disease of individual organs will be conducted. Intended for students in allied health professions. Prerequisite: Biol 203, 204 or consent of instructor. Offered every spring.

BIOL 324 Restoration Ecology 4
This course applies ecological paradigms toward restoration of degraded and damaged systems. Field components at Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center will allow students to gain experience in a variety of restoration techniques relevant to prairie, wetland, and forest habitats. Team-taught by professors with interests in merging theoretical ecology with practical ecological restoration. Prerequisite: Biol 115. Offered every fall.

BIOL 330 Biology Research Seminar 1
An exploration of opportunities in research at the undergraduate level, graduate level and for a career. Includes an introduction of ongoing departmental research programs, discussion and demonstrations by current student participants of their projects, examination of new discoveries reported in the current literature and discussions of opportunities for student participation in our research program for advanced biology credit.

BIOL 331 Junior Research Seminar 2
A weekly seminar focusing on scientific inquiry skills such as reviewing the literature, forming research questions, designing experiments, analyzing data, and writing scientific papers. Students will gain approval for a research project to be completed by the end of the senior year, in collaboration with a faculty member. Pre-requisite: junior standing. Offered every semester.

BIOL 334 Marine Ecology 5
A field course taught by Old Dominion University as part of the Marine Biology Semester designed to introduce students to important ecological processes operating in coastal marine environments. The course covers synthetic topics as well as the ecology of specific marine habitats. The laboratory is designed to provide students with experience in marine research and the organisms and ecological conditions common in various marine habitats visited by the class. Offered every fall as part of the Marine Biology Semester.

BIOL 335 Natural Resources Seminar 1
A broad survey course that investigates policies regulating natural resources. The class covers the rationale, content, process and origins of contemporary state, tribal, federal and international resource policies. Offered spring of odd years.

BIOL 340 Field Experience Environmental Educ 2 (1-3)
Participants will develop and conduct interpretive programs in nature study for visiting school groups; observe practices related to managing a natural area and participate in discussions of environmental issues. Instruction takes place at the Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center every May term. Enrollment by permission of instructor only.

BIOL 341 Advanced Cell Biology 4
Explores eukaryotic cell physiology at the molecular level. Intracellular transport, cell communication, the cell cycle, cytoskeleton function, and tissue formation will be addressed. Laboratory experiences will include microscopy, chromatography, protein purification, and cell culture techniques. Prerequisite: Biol 120. Offered spring of even years.

BIOL 343 Invertebrate Zoology 5
A field course taught by Old Dominion University as part of the Marine Biology Semester, which examines the invertebrate phyla with emphasis on classification, morphology, phylogeny, and general biology. Offered every fall as part of the Marine Biology Semester.

BIOL 345 Forest Resources 4
Study of the function, value and use of forest resources, including management of forests for harvest, water quality, biodiversity, aesthetics and recreation. Significant time spent in the field at forestland sites. Prerequisite: Biol 115. Offered fall of even years.

BIOL 350 Ornithology 4
Natural history, taxonomy, and conservation of birds. Includes much work on visual and aural identification of birds in the field. Taught during the May term at Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center. Prerequisite: Biol 115. Offered May term.

BIOL 375 Topics in Biology: 4 (1-4)
Classroom and/or laboratory study in a major area of biology not covered by regular courses. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

BIOL 400 Biology Research 1 (1-4)
On-campus participation in a research project. Prerequisite: consent of faculty supervisor. Offered every semester.

BIOL 409 Biology Internship 3 (0-3)
Practical experience in biology including professional levels of responsibility. Activities may be similar to those described for Biol 209, but with a higher degree of independent responsibility in the experience, as would be appropriate for a traditional apprenticeship. Students are encouraged to develop their own ideas. Taken only as credit/no credit. Prerequisite: consent of advisor. Offered every semester.

BIOL 410 Biology Senior Seminar 1
A weekly seminar focused on completing the capstone senior research project. Topics will include data analysis, research writing, communicating project results to the wider community, and the interdisciplinary nature of biological science. Led by all department faculty members. Prerequisite: Biol 331. Offered every semester.

Business courses

BUS 121 Entrepreneurship 3
The best way to learn about entrepreneurship is to do entrepreneurship. This course combines stories of success and failure in entrepreneurship, exploration of each student's aptitude for entrepreneurship, cultivation of new ideas, and practice with starting new ventures. Design thinking, business model canvas, and customer discovery concepts are foundations for the experiential learning in this course.

BUS 124 Adventures in Business 1
Designed to provide students with an initial framework and context for understanding how businesses operate and compete in their respective industries. This course is an overview of business, how it is organized, and how the various components of an organization work together to create value for the firm?s customers. This course gets students out of the classroom to meet professionals that are leading and operating many different kinds of organizations and introduces students to the many professional roles and career paths in business.

BUS 155 The Organization of Business 2
Introduces students to the key functional areas of business including management, finance, accounting, marketing, production, information technology, and human capital. Students will understand how these functions exist in a changing society and impact organizational decision-making. This course will introduce students to the many career opportunities in business.

BUS 209 Field Experience 3 (1-3)
Students enrolling in this course must be an accounting or business major or minor or an entrepreneurship minor and must have completed at least 12 hours of business or marketing or entrepreneurship program requirements.

BUS 217 Personal Finance 1
Designed to introduce students to the basics of personal finance. A survey course of personal and family financial planning with an emphasis on saving, financial planning, consumer credit, making buying decisions, purchasing insurance, selecting investments and retirement and estate planning.

BUS 220 Spreadsheet Skills 3
2013.This 7-week, online course provides students with the basic and intermediate spreadsheet skills expected by employers. Students will learn basic functions, chart creation, data analysis and representation, and tools commonly used organizations. Students must have access to a computer and Microsoft Excel.

BUS 230 Business Fundamentals 3
This course introduces students from non-business programs to the fundamental principles, concepts, and strategies of business. Students will learn the basics of marketing, finance, economics, operations, and management that are the foundation for understanding business. This course is not available to accounting majors/minors, business majors/minors, marketing majors, or sustainability management majors.

BUS 244 Consumer Behavior &Customer Journey 3
This course explores consumer behavior, from determining consumer needs and wants, the process by which they are satisfied, and the environment in which the behavior occurs. Concepts and theories developed in psychology, economics, and sociology will be applied to the customer?s journey to purchase.

BUS 254 Principles of Marketing 3
The nature of marketing in our society; how organizations develop marketing strategies that enable them to meet their objectives and the needs of their customers through adequate marketing mixes; the relationship of marketing to other management functions; marketing activities at the domestic and international levels.

BUS 282 Business Analytics 3
In this course students will develop the skills necessary to translate insights from data to infomation that is easily communicated and drives decision-making in organizations. This course will combine a student's knowledge of business with data and statistics, learning to use a variety of tools for data analysis and data visualization. A working knowledge of Microsoft Excel is expected. Prerequisite: completion of the student's mathematics requirement.

BUS 301 Analyzing Profitability 3
A study of how costs and revenues summarized in a business accounting system are associated with business processes and decisions. The main theme of the course centers on recognizing the impact of management decisions, economic factors, and customer behavior on the profitability of the business and the measurement of that impact in the accounting system. Prerequisites:ACC 202 and BUS 220

BUS 306 Essentials of HR Management 3
Provides a comprehensive understanding of what effective firms in competitive environments are doing to manage their human resources as successfully as possible. Topics include the major issues facing human resource management and the various human resource activities.

BUS 307 Career Planning 1
The course will provide a framework within which to appraise career options, set goals and implement a plan to reach goals. Topics include self-appraisal, resumes, developing a job-search strategy, interviewing for jobs, choosing the first job and graduate-school opportunities. This course is appropriate for students from all majors.

BUS 310 Business Law 3
Survey of legal principles. Topics include liability, contracts, sales and negotiable instruments; also, secured transactions, agency, partnerships, corporations and antitrust.

BUS 315 Principles of Management 3
Founded on the four major managerial functions: planning, organizing, leading and controlling. The process of management is applied to the functions of a business enterprise. Other topics include motivation, problem-solving and the coordination, communication and human relations aspects of management.

BUS 316 Principles of Marketing 3
The nature of marketing in our society; how organizations develop marketing strategies that enable them to meet their objectives and the needs of their customers through adequate marketing mixes; the relationship of marketing to other management functions; marketing activities at the domestic and international levels.

BUS 317 Financial Management 3
Introduces students to the primary elements of organizational finance such as time value of money, stock and bond valuation, financial analysis, working capital management, capital budgeting and dividend policy. Prerequisite: Acc 201, Econ 203.

BUS 318 Operations Management 3
Decision-making and analysis of production and service delivery challenges in areas of plant location, facilities design, process strategy, production planning and control, supply chain, inventory management, performance measurement, and quality control. Special attention is also given to the study of lean manufacturing and the impact of corporate culture on operations strategies and performances.

BUS 319 Leading Nonprofit Organizations 3
An exploration of how business principles apply to leading nonprofit organizations. Course provides students with the concepts, techniques and illustrations needed for effective nonprofit organizational management. Topics covered will include management and motivation of staff, trustees and volunteers, marketing, financial management, fund raising, planning, ethics, social responsibility, partnerships and sustainability.

BUS 320 Marketing Research & Analytics 3
A comprehensive overview of the nature and scope of marketing research and its role in decision support systems. Course focuses on the practical aspects of marketing research and provides a framework for conducting quantitative and qualitative research. Prerequisites: Bus 316, Econ 380, or Comm 240.

BUS 322 Organizational Communication 3
(Cross-listed from Comm 322) An exploration of communication within organizations, as well as communication between organizations and the larger society. Topics include theories of communication and organizational structure; examination of power, culture, and conflict in organizations; and analysis of verbal and nonverbal messages in interpersonal, small-group and public settings. Assignments will assist students in developing skills in listening, analysis, speaking and writing. Prerequisite: Comm 240 or Bus 316.

BUS 325 Bus Strategies for Sustainability 3
Students will examine how businesses develop a competitive advantage through the integration of sustainability and strategy, insulating themselves from risks in an ever changing global environment. This course will go beyond the triple bottom line to dig into specific topics like biomimicry and radical waste reduction strategies. Multiple trips to relevant business and industrial sites around the region will bring in-class topics into sharper focus as students see what actual strategy application looks like. Prerequisite: 9 credit hours of ACC, BUS, ECON and/or SUST courses.

BUS 328 Venture Planning 3
In this course students write business plans for an entrepreneurial venture. Areas of exploration include recognition of opportunity, pre-venture planning, start-up, strategy, negotiation and funding. Emphasis is also placed on the management of organizational growth and change. Attention is given to special concerns of small-firm management. Prerequisite: Bus 121 or consent of instructor.

BUS 332 Investments 3
In this course students will learn how to research, formulate and implement investment plans through portfolios constructed and monitored by students. Analytical frameworks and investment strategies that target chosen objectives will be established and then implemented using a simulation program linked to online stock markets. A shorter version of this course is offered with the name Opening Bell, for one credit hour.

BUS 335 Sustainability Reporting 3
This course focuses on an environmental, social, and governance reporting framework for organizations. Students will learn to identify, measure, evaluate, and communicate sustainability issues that are likely to affect the financial condition and operating performance of an organization. Prerequisite: Acc 201 or Sust 201, or Econ 345.

BUS 336 Advertising 3
A managerial approach to developing advertising strategies; the use of advertising as a marketing tool; the creative process; evaluation of the effectiveness of advertising; the role of advertising in our society. Prerequisite: Bus 316.

BUS 338 Sales 3
An introduction to the dynamic world of selling. A pragmatic approach to the techniques and skills used by professional sales persons. Includes role playing and the development of a sales presentation.

BUS 341 Essential Business Skills 3
This course will focus on a variety of key business skills that are highly valued by employers and will greatly benefit students in their future careers. Topics include business communication skills, personal productivity, working in teams, critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making.

BUS 343 Brand, Identity, and Design 3
Brands are a central organizing principle of successful organizations, guiding decisions and actions. Students will understand the value of a brand in a marketing and business environment, and how to build, manage, and protect a brand. Prerequisite: Principles of Marketing.

BUS 344 Digital Marketing 3
This course will introduce students to the importance of social media marketing, electronic commerce, digital advertising, and digital media. Students will understand the fundamentals, strategic roles, practices, and ethical issues. Students will develop skillsets that are required in using web and social media platforms to problem solve, create strategies, and complete tasks within digital marketing. Real-world marketing projects, including tactical roles situations, methods, ethics, and procedures will be part of the learning experience. Prerequisite: Bus 316

BUS 350 International Business 3
International business is the field of study that focuses on business activities that cross national boundaries. It includes exports and imports - the subject of traditional international trade discussions - as well as foreign direct investment, international banking, the international transfer of technology and global business strategy. The cultural environment of international business is considered in some detail. The course presents the important activities of an international firm and a framework for analysis from a manager's perspective. Case studies are used in the course. Prerequisites: Econ 204 or consent of instructor.

BUS 360 Java Junction Operations 3
Gives students the opportunity to operate and manage a real business. Java Junction, a coffee shop located in the KMY Connector, is completely student-run and student-managed. Students, under the supervision of a business faculty member, have full responsibility for all management and operating decisions. The team reports regularly to an Advisory Board who serves as Java Junction's Board of Directors. Entrepreneurial students and those energized by experiential learning are encouraged to sign up. This course is repeatable.

BUS 375 Topics: 3 (1-4)
Depth study on a selected topic in business. Intended to accommodate student interest and/or faculty expertise in specific business issues. Issues may vary from year to year and includes international trips during May term.

BUS 380 Business Analytics 3
In this course students will develop the skills necessary to translate insights from data to infomation that is easily communicated and drives decision-making in organizations. This course will combine a student's knowledge of business with data and statistics, learning to use a variety of tools for data analysis and data visualization. A working knowledge of Microsoft Excel is expected. Prerequisite: completion of the student's mathematics requirement.

BUS 400 Selected Readings 1 (1-4)
Special topics for majors and minors.

BUS 401 Integrated Marketing & Communicatio 3
This course will examine the process by which integrated marketing communications (IMC) programs are planned, developed, executed, and measured. Emphasis is placed on building strategies for effective marketing campaigns. IMC requires an understanding of the marketing process, communications theory and processes, marketing communications tools, consumer behavior, organizational structures and operations.

BUS 402 Applied Entrepreneurship 1 (1-3)
This course is designed to provide an opportunity for experiential learning in entrepreneurship. Students must propose an activity to a business department faculty member for approval prior to enrolling in this course. Requirements for receiving academic credit may include a designated number of hours working on the activity, periodic meetings with the supervising faculty member, and written assignments related to the activity. This course is repeatable.

BUS 403 Management Strategy 3
A study and evaluation of management strategies to achieve organizational goals and objectives. Utilizes management principles, financial analysis and control, personnel decisions and marketing strategies to solve case/simulation problems. Prerequisites: Bus 220, 315, 316 and 317 or consent of instructor.

BUS 409 Business Internship 3 (1-12)
This internship is an employment experience in a business enterprise. Each student?s internship is individually arranged and approved by the instructor prior to enrolling in the course. The experience is designed to integrate and apply theoretical learning with experience. Students must complete at least 40 hours of major requirements and be an accounting, business, marketing, or sustainability management major prior to enrolling in this course. This course is repeatable. Prerequisite: Bus 307.

BUS 410 Business Capstone 3
A broad examination of the responsibilities of business to society and social expectations of business. Topics include: business and its environment; corporate social responsibility; the manager and personal ethics; government regulation of business. Will incorporate use of skills learned throughout the business degree through a research project or a company specific project. Intended as the capstone senior seminar. Prerequisite: Senior standing in department or consent of instructor.

Chemistry courses

CHEM 101 Introductory Chemistry 3
Designed for non-chemistry majors. Chem 101 gives students a condensed foundation of chemistry principles. Students who have taken at least two semesters of high school chemistry with grades of B- or higher may enroll in Chem 103 without taking 101. Lectures and laboratory.

CHEM 103 Chemistry and Health 4
A survey of organic chemistry and biochemistry designed for nursing and other allied health majors. A laboratory component will involve chemical experimentation, research skills, and experimental design. Prerequisite: two semesters of high school chemistry with grades of B- or higher or a C or better in Chem 101, or consent of the instructor.

CHEM 111 General Chemistry 4
An introduction to the basic particles of matter, the modern concept of the atom, chemical bonding and the structure of chemical compounds. The physical and chemical properties of some elements and compounds are examined. Reaction equilibrium and kinetics, acid-base theory, electrochemistry, radiochemistry and thermodynamics are included. Lectures and laboratory. Prerequisite: Chem 101,103 or high school chemistry (grade C or better) and adequate pre-calculus math.

CHEM 112 General Chemistry 4
An introduction to the basic particles of matter, the modern concept of the atom, chemical bonding and the structure of chemical compounds. The physical and chemical properties of some elements and compounds are examined. Reaction equilibrium and kinetics, acid-base theory, electrochemistry, radiochemistry and thermodynamics are included. Lectures and laboratory. Prerequisite: Chem 111 (C or better) or consent of the instructor.

CHEM 200 Analytical Chemistry 4
Quantitative analysis using traditional and instrumental methods. Lectures and laboratory. Prerequisite: General Chemistry, Chem 111-112 (C or better) or consent of instructor.

CHEM 220 Human Nutrition 3
A study of the nutritive needs of the body in normal stages of growth and development, food sources of nutrients, nutrient functions and factors affecting nutrient utilization. Current U.S. and global nutritional problems are explored. Prerequisite: Chem 101, 103 or 111 or consent of instructor. (Biol 203 and 204 recommended).

CHEM 303 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 4
Covering structure, nomenclature, stereochemistry, and principal reactions for the major functional groups of organic chemistry, this is a one-semester survey course that gives an overview of the field. Laboratory exercises introduce basic purification techniques. This can be a stand-alone course for students majoring in biology and not continuing to medical school, veterinary school, or other graduate programs in biology and chemistry-related fields. For students with graduate school plans, this is the first in a two-course sequence in organic chemistry. Prerequisite: Chem 111-112 (C or better) or consent of the instructor.

CHEM 304 Intermediate Organic Chemistry 4
Using Chem 303 as a foundation, this course presents additional reactions (with an increased emphasis on mechanisms) and material on stereochemistry, as well as introducing spectroscopy (IR, NMR, GC-MS and UV-Vis). Together, the Chem 303-304 sequence covers all topics traditionally covered in two-semester organic chemistry courses. Laboratory experiments teach techniques for organic syntheses, instruments (GC/MS, FT-IR, FT-NMR), and chemical information retrieval. Prerequisite: Chem 303 (C or better) or consent of the instructor.

CHEM 310 Thermodynamics 4
A study of classical thermodynamics in the formulation of Gibbs. Thermodynamic potentials, characteristic variables, stability, homogeneous and heterogeneous systems, chemical kinetics are treated. An introduction to statistical mechanics is presented. Applications include studies of material properties and engineering systems. Lectures and laboratories. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204, Chem 111-112, Math 211 and 213 (all grades C or better) or consent of the instructor.

CHEM 312 Quantum Mechanics 4
Principles of quantum mechanics are discussed beginning with a hydrogen atom and concluding with many atom molecules. The material is examined using the physical evidences that support the theory of quantum mechanics, particularly spectroscopy. The course also discusses symmetry of molecules, theory of NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Lectures and laboratory. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204, Chem 111-112, Math 211 and 213 (all grades C or better) or consent of the instructor.

CHEM 350 Environmental Chemistry 4
A laboratory intensive course with two lectures and two three-hour labs each week. Will include sampling, statistics and techniques involved in determining the level of contaminants in the environment. Although some instrumental theory will be discussed, the course will emphasize experimental technique. Students will gain hands-on experience collecting authentic environmental samples and using modern instrumentation and methods for detecting the presence of a variety of inorganic and organic compounds. Instruments used in the laboratory will include AA, HPLC, GC and GC-MS as well as standard commercial test kits. The students will gain experience using EPA methods for determining the level of contaminants in their samples. Prerequisite: Chem 111-112 and 303.

CHEM 400 Advanced Preparations 1 (1-2)
Projects involving advanced laboratory techniques.

CHEM 409 Chemistry Internship 3 (0-3)
Designed to give the student practical experience in chemistry. May involve work in a chemical industrial laboratory or production facility or an academic research activity. Students may also propose their own projects. 120 hours of work experience is required. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

CHEM 410 Senior Seminar 3
(Cross-listed from Phys 410) An exploration of the relations between the natural sciences and other broad areas with special emphasis on ethical and theological concerns. Discussion, lectures, preparation and presentation of papers. Prerequisite: Senior standing.

CHEM 415 Inorganic Chemistry 4
Emphasis on models of structure and bonding as related to chemical and physical properties. Discussions will include descriptive chemistry of the elements, coordination and organometallic compounds and solid state materials. The laboratory component emphasizes synthesis and characterization of inorganic compounds. Prerequisites: Chem 200, 303, 304, and 312 (all grades C or better) or consent of the instructor.

CHEM 430 Biochemistry 4
Introduction to the chemical processes of living organisms. This course (which complements Biol 311 or 341) focuses primarily on proteins (including enzymes) and metabolism, with introductions to carbohydrates, lipids, and cell membranes. Students planning to continue on to graduate programs in medicine, biochemistry, or related fields should take both Chem 430 and Biol 311 or 341 to get a solid background in the areas of biochemistry and molecular biology. Lectures and laboratory. Prerequisite: Chem 303-304.

CHEM 450 Introduction to Research Problems 1 (1-3)
Laboratory and conference. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

Communication courses

COMM 108 Digital Design 3
(Cross-listed from Art 108) This course in visual expression and communication will introduce students to relevant computer programs including Adobe InDesign, Adobe Illustrator and Photoshop. Through exercises, projects and critiques, students will learn both creative visual design and technical aspects of computer-generated images and composition.

COMM 190 Introduction to Radio 1
This applied course prepares students for work at WGCS-FM. Students attend lecture-discussion periods, engage in self-study and learn to operate the station through tutorial shifts.

COMM 195 Introduction to TV News 1
Applied learning, involving work assignments on the Correspondent, the campus television news program. Focuses on television news fundamentals including field reporting, videography, directing, producing and newscast studio operations.

COMM 200 Communication Practice 1 (1-2)
Applied work in communication with the student newspaper, yearbook, GC-TV, WGCS or other on-campus communication activity. A maximum of two hours applicable toward a communication major or minor. Consent of instructor required.

COMM 202 Oral Communication 3
A study of communication theories as applied to oral communication. Practical experience in a variety of activities including interpersonal communication, public speaking, small-group communication, persuasion and nonverbal communication. Attention is given to communicating in a culturally diverse society. Prerequisite: Core 110

COMM 204 Expository Writing 3
(Cross-listed from Engl 204) Theory and practice of written communication. Assignments in a variety of prose forms aim at developing the student's control of logic, organization, rhetoric, usage, and audience accommodation. Prerequisite: CORE 110 or equivalent.

COMM 206 Communication Across Cultures 3
A study of cultures, comparative message systems and principles of cross-cultural communication. A focus on current issues having to do with cultural interactions. Students analyze cultural dynamics through ethnographic projects, films and simulations. This course is designed as preparation for SST or for living in settings unlike one's native home.

COMM 209 Field Experience 3 (1-3)
Experiential learning, usually in an off-campus professional setting, for communication majors and minors. The student contracts with a faculty member in regard to goals, performance expectations, supervision, evaluation and course subtitle. The 209 level is intended for first year and sophomore students. Upper level students should enroll in 409. Prerequisite: Comm 202 or 204.

COMM 212 Digital Media Production 3
An introduction to digital media with an emphasis on field video production. The primary goal of the course is the development of the necessary video and audio skills and understandings needed to create effective digital media messages. Secondary goals include providing an overview of digital video production tools and techniques and exploring aesthetic and ethical issues of media. Students will take creative responsibility for fundamental media projects.

COMM 215 Turning the Lens Documentary Film 3
This course examines documentary as an art form and powerful storytelling tool. As distribution outlets like Netflix, hulu and YouTube become more popular, the access to documentaries is at a record high. The number of households without a paid cable or satellite subscription has increased over 67 percent in the last several years, as consumers shift to alternative distribution outlets, where documentaries are surging. The course will look at how documentaries shape our cultural conversations on topics of national importance. This course will draw from perspectives in PJCS, history, English and other disciplines in analyzing documentary films. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

COMM 216 Race, Class and Pop Music 3
This course will examine the effects of race and class on the working-class poor of the Southern United States and their attempt to use music as a vehicle to build community, improve social standing and create awareness of systemic injustices and inequalities inflicted on the majority of Americans. A field trip is planned to one of three cities important to the core themes of this course. Those cities are Memphis, Nashville and New Orleans. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

COMM 235 Gendered Communication 3
This course will critically engage various issues concerning gender, analyzing the impact of gender on communication. How is gender created and maintained through social practices (e.g. interpersonal interaction, media representations, social media, etc.)? How do these gendered social practices intersect with other social categories such as race and ethnicity? Our readings will include the work of Gloria Anzaldua, Ta-Nehisi Coates, Patricia Hill Collins, bell hooks, Deborah Tannen, Anna Deavere Smith and others. A Social World course in the Goshen Core.

COMM 240 Communication Research 3
An introduction to theory building and research methodology of mass communication. Course focuses on the practical aspects of communication research, providing a framework for conducting quantitative and qualitative research..

COMM 250 Writing for Media 3
An introductory newswriting course devoted to print, broadcast and multimedia environments. The course will cover new judgments and new values; reporting strategies; research techniques; forms of journalistic writing and Associated Press style.

COMM 255 Photography 3
A first course including camera work, digital image workflow and printing. Technical fluency, visual composition, photojournalistic approaches, and expression are components of the course. Students must provide a digital camera on which f-stop and shutter speed can be controlled.

COMM 260 Broadcast Writing 3
Students will study the principles, forms and techniques of writing for broadcast media. Assignments will focus on the writing and editing of broadcast news and commercial messages.

COMM 270 Media, Law & Ethics 3
The course provides an introduction to the U.S. legal system and the major principles of media law. The course will cover issues like access to information, accuracy, conflicts of interest, deception, fairness, libel, obscenity, plagiarism and privacy. Students will devote attention to models of ethical decision-making as they are applied both personally and to the media.

COMM 290 Radio Operations 1
An applied course providing advanced instruction and experience in radio station operations, emphasizing four areas: announcing, systems operations (computer-based operations, satellite downlinking, basic productions, etc.) programming and management. Course work includes assisting WGCS managers in such areas as programming, production, and operations. Prerequisite: Comm 190.

COMM 294 Adv DM Methods:Pre-production 3
Covers the advanced skills involved in the planning, conceptualizing and writing of complex productions. Emphasis will be on proper storytelling techniques for effective communication through the visual medium. Course may provide opportunities to work for and with FiveCore Media clients on projects. Prerequisite: Comm 212.

COMM 295 TV News Production 1
Applied learning, involving leadership of GC Journal. Focuses on television news producing, directing and newscast studio operations. Prerequisite:Comm 195.

COMM 296 Adv DM Methods:Production 3
Covers the advanced production skills in filming, framing, audio recording, lighting and directing. Emphasis will be on proper storytelling techniques for effective communication through the visual medium. Course may provide opportunities to work for and with FiveCore Media clients on projects. Prerequisite: Comm 212.

COMM 298 Adv DM Methods:Post-production 3
Covers advanced post-production editing, motion graphics, audio mastering, color correction and producing skills. Emphasis will be on proper storytelling techniques for effective communication through the visual medium. Course may provide opportunities to work for and with FiveCore Media clients on projects. Prerequisite: Comm 212.

COMM 308 Feature Writing 3
Students will study nonfiction writing forms, including narrative journalism, and learn the process of publishing articles in newspaper, magazine and online markets. Students will prepare articles for submission. Prerequisite: Comm 204 or 250 or equivalent.

COMM 312 Advanced Digital Media Production 3
Advanced study of digital media production with an emphasis on "storytelling" through field video production. The primary goal of the course is the development of advanced skills and understandings needed to create effective and professional digital media messages. Secondary goals include providing an overview of digital media production tools and techniques and exploring aesthetic and ethical issues of media. This course places emphasis on the "creative" roles of digital media production personnel such as writers, producers, directors, videographers, and video editors. Students will take creative responsibility for advanced media projects. Prerequisite: Comm 212 or consent of instructor.

COMM 314 Advanced Digital Media Immersion 3
The course focuses on advanced integration of video and audio elements in program-length productions. Students will work as members of a production team to create professional digital media projects. The primary goal of this course is immersion in a "real world" production experience. Students may play many roles as a part of the team, including producer, director, writer, videographer and video editor. Prerequisite: Comm 312 or consent of instructor.

COMM 322 Organizational Communication 3
An exploration of communication within organizations, as well as communication between organizations and the larger society. Topics include theories of communication and organizational structure; examination of power, culture, and conflict in organizations; and analysis of verbal and nonverbal messages in interpersonal, small-group and public settings. Assignments will assist students in developing skills in listening, analysis, speaking and writing. Prerequisite: Comm 240 or Bus 316.

COMM 324 Principles of Public Relations 3
Introduction to public relations contexts, issues and practices - research, planning, communicating and evaluating. Emphasis on skills in analyzing public opinion and in communication with internal and external publics, with special attention to not-for-profit organizations. Prerequisite: Comm 240 or Bus 316.

COMM 326 Creating for the Web 3
This course examines the necessary tools for building successful web pages. Students utilize design elements and principles to emphasize the importance of the web as an effective form of communication. They also learn languages of page development (HTML/CSS) and responsive web design. Prerequisite: one college-level course in communication or graphic design. Prerequisite: Art/Comm 108

COMM 350 Reporting for the Public Good 3
Journalism's role in serving the public good will be in the forefront as students discuss civic journalism, the watchdog function of the news media, tensions between profits and public service, and the advocacy of peace and justice. Students will focus on significant independent reporting projects intended to advance the public good. Prerequisite: Comm 250 or equivalent.

COMM 360 Broadcasting for the Public Good 3
This course examines the philosophical, historical, technological and social aspects of broadcast and new global electronic media industries. Students will study aspects of broadcasting and new media economics, management, audience analysis, programming, media effects, government policy and FCC regulations for the public good.

COMM 375 Animation 3
Focuses on digital animation. Students will learn the skills needed to bring characters to life as well as create visual effects using computer software. Issues in the international contemporary visual culture will also be studied. Prerequisite: Comm 326.

COMM 383 Communication and Society 3
A study of communication issues in modern society with attention to the persons, institutions, media and systems that facilitate social interaction. An overview of communication philosophy as a basis for ethical and aesthetic perspectives.

COMM 385 Studies in Communication 3
Investigations into particular communication issues: social, scientific, philosophic, historical, aesthetic, political or institutional. Focus on an institution or topic of current interest.

COMM 386 Film 3
Survey of film as art, literature and mass medium. Historical development; authors and genres; philosophical, economic and political issues. A selection of 12 films for detailed study. Emphasis on "reading" film, understanding the medium's function and exploring contemporary cinematic issues.

COMM 409 Internship 3 (1-3)
Experiential learning, usually in an off-campus professional setting, for communication majors and minors. The student contracts with a faculty member in regard to goals, performance expectations, supervision, evaluation and course subtitle. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

COMM 410 Senior Seminar 3
Students will discuss practical, professional, and ethical dimensions of their Goshen College education. They will engage in a common reading experience, conduct a final project, interview professionals in their aspirational fields, and prepare a capstone portfolio that reflects designated learning outcomes.

COMM 412 Special Project 1 (1-3)
Students may conduct research of particular interest or pursue specialized applied projects in communication under faculty supervision. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

Computer science courses

COSC 206 Logic/Language/Computer Programming 3
This course focuses on functional problem solving methods. While solving problems, students will learn about how computers are used to solve problems, computer algorithms, storage of data, and data abstraction. Students will learn how to design, write, and test programs used to solve problems. Two important functional problem solving methods will be emphasized: recursion and high order problem solving. Most problems posed in the course will be related to storage, manipulation, and rendering of graphical images.

COSC 216 Programming I 4
This course focuses on using imperative programming techniques to solve problems. This course will also look at issues related to date representation, data abstraction, memory management, arrays, linked lists, pointers, and assertion. It will also provide a brief introduction to use UNIX/Linux and shell scripting.

COSC 270 Intro to Game Development 3
An introduction to the process of designing games and playful experiences. Concepts, methods, techniques and tools used in the design of a wide variety of computer games in a 2D environment. Includes rapid prototyping, play testing and design iteration using a player-centered approach. This course collaborates with the art department to include digital design techniques and game art.

COSC 316 Programming II 4
This course focuses on using object-oriented problem solving techniques. Topics covered include object-oriented design, encapsulation, inheritance, algorithmic analysis, and data structures. It will also cover the use of an integrated development environment. This course will look at issues related to solving larger problems than were covered in COSC 206 and 216. Prerequisite: COSC 216.

COSC 346 Human Computer Interaction 3
This course covers principles for designing, implementing, and evaluating user interfaces. The course will introduce user-centered design, rapid prototyping, experimentation, direct manipulation, and cognitive principles. Students will apply these principles in creating web sites. Prerequisite: COSC 216.

COSC 356 Computer Networking & Security 3
Structure and components of computer networks, packet switching, layered architectures, and congestion management. Also covers principles of computer security, network security, application security, data security, threats, vulnerabilities, access control, and cryptography. Prerequisite: COSC 216 or consent of instructor.

COSC 360 Operating Systems 3
A study of operating system concepts and structures with a major focus on process control, memory management, I/O management and concurrent processes. Programming with multiple threads, synchronization (mutex locks and condition variables), data races, deadlock, and program invariants. Prerequisite: CoSc 316.

COSC 365 Analysis of Algorithms 3
Course covers the design and analysis of efficient algorithms. Topics covered include sorting, search trees, heaps, hashing, divide-and-conquer, dynamic programming, randomized algorithms, stochastic algorithms, approximation algorithms, amortized analysis, probabilistic analysis, competitive analysis. Prerequisite: CoSc 316 and Math 205.

COSC 366 Database Design 3
The proper design of databases and their construction through diagramming tools and SQL. Attention is also given to form and report development, data warehouse and data mining issues, and administrative issues such as user security. Students gain experience in robust database environments such as MySQL and in web environments. Prerequisite: COSC 216.

COSC 370 Advanced Game Development 3
Advanced work in designing games and playful experiences, building on skills developed in CoSc 270. Working in a 3D environment and learning how to program in Unity, this course includes students from both art and computer science. The expected outcome for this class is a full-fledged game with provisioning for a retail environment across multiple platforms. Teams will incorporate environmental and character art while extending their knowledge of appropriate software and digital design techniques. Dynamics and creation of game narrative will be covered. Prerequisite: CoSc 270 and CoSc 316 or permission of instructor.

COSC 375 Special Topics 3 (1-3)
Topics will be selected based on student interest. Possible topics include: Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data, Health Information Systems, Computer Architecture, Compiler Design, Software Engineering, Theory of Computation, and Computational Linguistics. Other topics will be considered. Course may be repeated. Prerequisite: CoSc 316 or consent of instructor.

COSC 406 Systems Analysis 3
A structured approach to solving organizational problems. The focus of the course is on determining the needs of the organization and meeting those needs through the design of an information system. Topics such as feasibility analysis, determining requirements, documenting processes and data requirements through modeling tools, designing a new system, and implementation issues are covered. Prerequisite: COSC 316 and 366 or consent of instructor.

COSC 409 Internship 3 (1-3)
Work experience in or student observation of the computer field. Each student's project is individually arranged with the instructor. The course is designed to integrate and apply theoretical learning with experience. Students desring a computer internship must be a Computer Science or Information Technology major/minor and must have completed at least 12 hours of major/minor requirements. This course is repeatable.

COSC 410 Senior Seminar 1
Summative course for the Computer Science and Information Technology majors. This course discusses the enormous impact that computing has had on society at large. It will also examine issues concerning a sustainable future and how that places added responsibilities on computing professionals. Course also discusses professional ethics, professional development, professional communication, and collaborating in person as well as remotely. The course will also include an assessment of mastery of learning outcomes for the major. Prerequisite: Senior standing.

COSC 416 Project Management 3
Practice in managing the system life cycle; requirements determination for logical design, physical design, testing and implementation of a system. Other topics may include system and database integration issues; metrics for project-management and system-performance evaluation; managing expectations of superiors, users, team members and others related to the project; determining skill requirements and staffing the project; cost effectiveness analysis; presentation techniques; effective management of both behavioral and technical aspects of the project. Prerequisite: COSC 406.

Goshen CORE courses

CORE 100 Identity, Culture and Community 3
How do people with diverse identities live together in a vibrant community? Students will acquire perspectives and skills to prepare them to thrive in their intercultural experience whether in the college community, the local community or the global community. Students will explore the construction of identity, the components of culture, and elements of community. Also facilitates the transition to college (academic, social and spiritual), introduces the Goshen Core with the liberal arts context, and allows exploration of areas of study and career possibilities. Taken in the fall semester of the first year.

CORE 104 Learning Community 1
A continuation of the first semester Core 100 experience with a focus on vocation, leadership, sustainability and faith as pathways to career development. Taken in the spring semester of the first year. Required for all new fall first-year students and for fall and spring transfer students who have a transfer course equivalent to CORE 100. Prerequisite: CORE 100.

CORE 106 Culture and Community 3
This course for transfer students and spring semester first-time students combines course content from the CORE 100 and CORE 104 courses. Students will explore identity and culture, specifically the question: How do people with diverse identities live together in a vibrant community? Course content will also include an introduction to the Goshen Core, campus resources for career development and spiritual growth, student development theory, and electronic portfolio formation.

CORE 110 Academic Voice:Speaking and Writing 3
In this course, students practice crafting and presenting speeches and essays using the tools of critical reading, analysis, active listening, rhetoric and research, with the purpose of developing their voices to participate in academic conversations. Taken in the fall or spring semester of the first year. Prerequisite: SAT verbal score of 480 (old) or 540 (new), ACT English score of 20, or Engl 105.

CORE 115 Wellness for Life 1
Explores the influence of physical activity and dietary choices on risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and mental/emotional disorders. Examines personal, genetic, attitudinal and behavioral components of wellness. Taken in fall or spring semester of first year.

CORE 120 Engaging the Bible 3
An introduction to biblical literature that provides a foundation for current expressions of Christian faith and practice. Students will gain skill in the use of academic resources and methods in order to read, interpret and communicate more effectively. This course should be taken by the Fall semester of the second year. Core 110 should be taken prior to or in the same semester.

CORE 153 GC Sem: The Digital Age 3
Explores the impact of mass media on individuals and cultures, both historically and in contemporary society. Considers legal and ethical issues as well as strategies for users, creators and critics of the media. A GC Seminar and Social World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisite CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 154 GC Sem: Social Memory 3
Why do end times movements develop during stressful times--environmentally, politically and socially? What can we learn from three late 19th century movements in China, Brazil and South Africa, about how people construct communities and dream of a better world? A GC Seminar and Social World course in the Goshen Core, Prerequisites: CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 160 GC Sem: Energy and Environment 3
Humankind has built an amazing civilization on planet Earth by exploiting fossil fuels. Now we confront challenges such as climate change, the limits of oil extraction, and our impact on other species. An understanding of physics, particularly of energy, is key to identifying promising solutions. A GC Seminar and Natural World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisites: CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 170 GC Sem: Speaking of Death 3
Why do we fear death? How is our understanding of death bound together with our concept of human nature, the sacred, and human responsibility? This course will look at the economics of death, religious beliefs, commemoration and consolation. It will draw heavily from literature and the arts. A GC Seminar and Religious World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisites: CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 172 GC Sem: Religion and Politics 3
How does religion function as a force for transformation and change in society, or a source of stability? And how does the political world feed back into the world of faith? This course examines the impact of religious beliefs, religious practices, and religious communities on the broader world of politics: governance, social issues, and the organization of the polis. A GC Seminar and Religious World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequistites: CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 173 GC Sem: World Christianity 3
Why is Christianity growing so rapidly in most parts of the world while it appears to be declining in Europe and North America? This course will investigate assumptions about secularization and globalization. It will look especially at Catholicism, African Indigenous Churches, Pentecostalism, and the Anabaptist-Mennonite church. Students will participate in interpreting data gathered in primary research by the professor. A Goshen Seminar and Religious World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisites: CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 174 GC Sem:Philosophy, Wonder & Exist 3
A recurring issue in philosophy is the relationship between the body and the soul. One approach to this perplexing problem is to synthesize and integrate these two features of human existence, contending that we are fundamentally material beings or most essentially spiritual beings. This course asks students to confront the body/soul integrative question (or mind-body synthesis) through the careful reading of seminal texts in philosophy, psychology, theology, and literature. Critiquing what Blaise Pascal and Soren Kierkegaard describe as a culture of distraction that avoids metaphysical questions. Course readings and assignments invite students to existentially confront and personally engage with central philosophical questions. While interdisciplinary in nature, this course serves as a primary introduction to the field of philosophy through the lens of a salient and enduring issue. A Goshen Seminar and Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

CORE 175 Religion and Work 3
This course explores the ambiguous relationship between religion and social attitudes toward work. How do religious values influence the way we work, how we integrate work into our personal identity, and which type of work is done by whom? Includes analysis of religious texts, historical study, and application to the contemporary global economic context. A GC Seminar and Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

CORE 176 GC Sem: Amish, Menn, and Am Religio 3
This course asks the question what does it mean to be an American? through the lens of diverse stories from Mennonite and Amish groups from the first days of European presence in North America to today. White or black, buggy-riding or Prius-driving, conservative or progressive, these groups have answered this question in all kinds of different ways, demonstrating how wide the spectrum of religion in America can be. Without moralizing or dogmatics, this class will use them as tourguides to touch on the American intersections of religion with migration, politics, gender, class, race, ethnicity, violence, sexuality, politics, pluralism, or law.

CORE 180 GC Sem:Identity in World Literature 3
Explores the expression of individual and national identity in novels, essays and poems from post-colonial global contexts. Uses multiple lenses: literary, historical, political, faith, and gender. A GC Seminar and an Artistic World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisite CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 184 Are We Still Human? 3
How has the definition of being human changed over time--along with societal developments in biology, technology and spirituality? And how is that changing definition of humanity reflected and explored in literature, film and other arts? A GC Seminar and Artistic World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisites: Core 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 185 GC Sem: Banned Books 3
Why are works of literature so frequently banned in the U.S.? How can literature honor dissenting voices and create a space for dialogue around controversial issues? This course will examine four or five major banned books in their historical and cultural contexts. Groups of students will research each situation and lead class members in examining objections and responses to each text, including aesthetic, ethical, social and religious values. A Goshen Seminar and Artistic World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisites: CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 186 GC Sem: Walking in the World 3
What do walking, thinking, observing, being in the world, and writing have in common? This course explores the interrelatedness of human ideas and actions with the environment experientially, intellectually, and creatively. By encouraging students to physically explore (walk in) the world around them, to read outstanding writers on the subject, and to produce their own writing, we will encourage students to investigate the world?s body while also considering themselves as a part of the body of the world. How we view the natural world has everything to do with the ways we have been taught to see it. A GC Seminar and Artistic World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisites: Core 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 187 The Poetry of Hip Hop 3
In this course we'll study rap as the poetry it is, paying attention to features such as rhythm, rhyme, allusion, and wordplay. We?ll also think about how rap?s seemingly extra-poetic features?its musicality, its performativity, its close reliance on sound technology?invite us to expand our definition of poetry more broadly. For a final project, you will research and write an argumentative essay about a current social issue, and then revise your essay into an original rap song. A GC Seminar course that meets the Artistic World requirement.

CORE 192 GC Sem: War, Peace, Nonresistance 3
Can or should Christians participate in war? What form should the responsibility to pursue peace take? From early in the tradition, Christians have struggled to answer these questions. In this course we examine how concepts of pacifism, just war, and holy war developed and the many forms that peacemaking takes--especially today. A Goshen Seminar and Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisites: CORE 110 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

CORE 210 Professional Communication Skills 4
A course for adult students that responds to the challenges of professional communication expectations. The focus is on critique and the development of individual written and oral communication skills for content, style and effectiveness. Access and management of information will also be addressed.

CORE 250 Cultural Perspectives: 3
Students learn from a variety of perspectives as they relate to a new culture in an immersive context and, in the process, learn about themselves. This course develops understanding and skills for communicating and working across cultures and encourages the cultural competence important to succeed in the global community.

CORE 251 Cultural Perspectives: 3
Students learn from a variety of perspectives as they relate to a new culture in an immersive context and, in the process, learn about themselves. This course develops understanding and skills for communicating and working across cultures and encourages the cultural competence important to succeed in the global community.

CORE 260 Global Topics: 3
The course for the interdisciplinary academic content in the ?study? portion of SST: lectures, field trips and reading/writing. It will focus on one local theme or issue shaped by global forces. Students will explore a topical question historically, politically, sociologically, economically, environmentally and in the arts with local experts.

CORE 270 Community Engage Learning: 3
A volunteer placement in an immersive community setting with an organization that serves the community in the ?service? portion of the semester, plus an action-research project. This action oriented mode of learning will help students develop their own sense of social responsibility in a cross-cultural setting. The research project will use interview and participant-observation methodologies.

CORE 271 Community Engaged Learning: 3
A volunteer placement in an immersive community setting with an organization that serves the community in the ?service? portion of the semester, plus an action-research project. This action oriented mode of learning will help students develop their own sense of social responsibility in a cross-cultural setting. The research project will use interview and participant-observation methodologies.

CORE 300 Global Issues: 3
Designed as a capstone for students completing On-campus Intercultural Study, and as an elective option for students who return from Study Service Term, this course guides students in reflecting on their cross-cultural experiences and in considering how these influence personal relationships, decision and goals. Rooted in the study of a particular theme such as global poverty or religion in world cultures, students will analyze their own cultures and the cultures around them via reflective writing, readings, guided discussions and service learning ventures. Prerequisite: 9 credit hours of On-campus Alternate Program, completed Study Service Term, or consent of instructor.

CORE 305 SST Integration Capstone 2
An online course taken after completing a semester of study abroad. Students will reflect on their international and intercultural experiences at Goshen College and complete a portfolio project that synthesizes their learning. The goal of the course is to integrate lessons learned in the Goshen Core, the major, and the international experience.

CORE 309 Lead Serve in Multicultural World 3
The modern workforce is rapidly becoming a mosaic of colors, languages, cultural traditions and values. This demographic reality poses an immense challenge for both workforce and leaders. The goal of this course is to better understand different cultural values and styles, to recognize one's own biases and assumptions and to value diversity.

Department of collegiate studies courses

DCS 110 Academic Success 1
This course presents the skills needed for excellence and provides a solid foundation for students. Students evaluate their abilities and interests in order to develop career goals and align these goals with an appropriate course of study. Students also improve on academic skills necessary to successfully complete academic work, such as critical thinking, study techniques, and test taking strategies. It not only introduces the student to developing career goals and appropriate course of study, teaches critical study skills and orients students to campus resources but also serves as a human link to the college. It is critical that instructors become acquainted with students informally since the instructor of this course often serves as a sounding board for students' academic concerns and may be the "connection" that gives the students the self-confidence to succeed in all of their courses. In addition, students are introduced to important dynamics of interpersonal communication and conflict resolution.

DCS 210 Career Exploration 1
An interactive exploration of career decision making. Introduces students to the concepts of career, life planning and vocation through identifying strengths, clarifying values and self-evaluation. Provides information about educational and career options. Meets Tuesday and Thursdays for twelve 75-minute sessions, combining lecture and discussion group formats.

DCS 410 Interdisc Senior Sem 1
An elective course option for interdisciplinary majors. Weekly meetings led by the interdisciplinary major advisor for reading, discussion, and reflection on professional, vocational, and ethical/spiritual topics. Students will develop a capstone portfolio that integrates their disciplinary training and develops career resources. Prerequisite: practicum or internship credit.

Economics courses

ECON 200 Principles of Economics 3
This course will introduce students to the fundamental concepts of micro and macro economics.

ECON 203 Principles of Microeconomics 3
A general survey of economic relationships and processes in modern society. Analyzes market and price behavior under competitive and monopolistic conditions and reviews the economic activities of government, with emphasis on spending and taxing patterns.

ECON 204 Principles of Macroeconomics 3
A general survey of economic relationships and processes in modern society. Focuses on macroeconomic topics: national-income accounting, aggregate-income determination, money and banking and international trade. Prerequisite: Econ 203.

ECON 306 International Economics 3
Factors in international economic relations; international trade theory; balance of international payments; foreign exchange; commercial policy of the United States and other countries; foreign investment and economic development; international economic cooperation. Prerequisite: Econ 204 or consent of instructor.

ECON 308 Intro to Economic Development 3
Provides a general overview of the development field and surveys major issues from a range of viewpoints. Topics include trade and financial problems faced by developing countries, evaluation of various models of development and application of economic techniques to development problems.

ECON 309 Environmental Economics 3
In this course we consider how economic activity affects the environment and how environmental destruction can, in turn, harm the economy. We apply the concepts of externalities, public goods and open-access resources to topics such as air pollution, climate change and green business practices.

ECON 310 Economics of War and Peace 3
National defense spending is the largest category in the discretionary portion of the federal budget, larger than all the other categories combined. This course examines the benefits and costs of this commitment of public funds. Topics include the armament industry, national security, government financing, terrorism and peace-making.

ECON 312 Natural Resource Economics 3
In this course we examine how businesses utilize the earth's resources to provide goods and services. We assess whether natural resources are being used efficiently and sustainably, discussing policies and practices to correct market failures. Topics include fossil fuels, renewable energy and sustainable management of forests and fisheries. Prerequisite: Econ 203.

ECON 314 Ecological Economics 3
The emerging field of ecological economics balances the goal of economic efficiency against those of ecological sustainability and social justice. In this course we explore the "triple-bottom-line" (sustainable scale, just distribution and efficient allocation), applying these principles to business, government and individual decision-making. Prerequisite: Econ 203 or 309.

ECON 315 Economic Models and Measurement 3
Micro and macro economic concepts using mathematical analysis will be included in this course.

ECON 345 Economics of Sustainability 3
This course explores the transformation necessary to create a sustainable economy using a triple-bottom-line perspective: planet, people, and profit. Students will learn about the organizational and structural changes required to promote a sustainable economy, focusing on the objectives of sustainable scale, just distribution and efficient allocation as well as public- and private-sector strategies to support the transition from carbon-based resources to renewables. Prerequisite: Econ 203 or Econ 309.

ECON 375 Topics 3 (1-3)
Depth study on a selected topic in economics. Intended to accommodate student interest and/or faculty expertise in specific business issues. Issues may vary from year to year and include international trips during May term.

ECON 400 Selected Readings 1
Special topics for majors and minors.

Education courses

EDUC 201 Foundations of Education 4 (3-4)
Includes both campus and field study of learning environments, classroom management and instructional methods that meet the needs of diverse student populations. The course emphasizes race, gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, family structures, language and exceptionalities from a social justice, critical perspective in light of the historical, philosophical, and social foundations of education. 20 hour field placement required. Prerequisite: 2.5 GPA

EDUC 300 Exceptional Learners: Elementary 3
A study of students with exceptionalities within an academic setting offers practical information on meeting students' exceptional needs within mainstream classrooms. The course provides basic information on identification procedures, characteristics of different categories of special education, instructional methods, materials, adaptations, and accommodations to meet the needs of diverse learners. The professional context and collaborative nature of designing and implementing educational services for exceptional students is explored. This course is tailored to meet exceptional and developmental needs of elementary school learners. Field placement in a diverse classroom setting required.

EDUC 301 Curriculum Studies:Math 2
A study of mathematics pedagogy with an emphasis on conceptually sound and developmentally appropriate lessons. Includes selecting and evaluating topics of study, multiple representations of information and instructional strategies, interdisciplinary teaching, and using school and community resources. Also includes differentiation and modifications for special needs students. Field experiences in diverse classrooms.

EDUC 302 Exceptional Learners: Secondary 3
A study of students with exceptionalities within an academic setting offers practical information on meeting students' exceptional needs within mainstream classrooms. The course provides basic information on identification procedures, characteristics of different categories of special education, instructional methods, materials, adaptations, and accommodations to meet the needs of diverse learners. The professional context and collaborative nature of designing and implementing educational services for exceptional students is explored. This course is tailored to meet exceptional and developmental needs of middle and high school learners. Field placement in a diverse classroom setting required.

EDUC 303 Literacy I:Developmental 3
A study in the development of reading, writing, listening and speaking. Focus on research-based, standards-based, student-centered instructional methods, assessment and developing authentic engagement that leads to a life-long enjoyment of reading and writing in many modes and styles. A study of literacy development, methodology and curricular options for K-6 learners. Includes study of literacy and English language learners and differentiation. Field placement in diverse classroom settings.

EDUC 304 Curriculum Studies:Social Studies 2
A study of social studies curriculum and pedagogy with special emphasis on instruction and assessment, including connecting curriculum to student's prior learning, abilities and needs. Field experiences in diverse settings. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 307 Children's & Adolescent Literature 3
A survey of children's and young adolescent literature studying genre, authors, illustrators, the art of writing and illustration; extensive reading in the field as well as writing a book for children.

EDUC 308 Curriculum Studies:Science 2
A study of science pedagogy with an emphasis on conceptually sound and developmentally appropriate lessons. Includes selecting and evaluating topics of study; multiple representations of information and instructional strategies; and interdisciplinary teaching. Also includes study of ways to adapt curriculum for special needs students. Field experiences in diverse settings. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 309 Educational Psychology:Secondary 3
A study of human developmental theories, learning processes and individual preferences within the classroom offers theoretical information regarding the appreciation of student diversity and identity. Successful, research-based teaching practices are provided. Observation, hypothesis testing, and social scientist techniques are utilized to develop reflective teachers both in theoretical knowledge and practice within a field placement. Classroom management, motivation, and behavior analyses are emphasized. This course is tailored to meet the developmental needs of middle and high school learners. Field placement required.

EDUC 310 Educational Psychology:Elementary 3
A study of human developmental theories, learning processes and individual preferences within the classroom offers theoretical information regarding the appreciation of student diversity and identity. Successful, research-based teaching practices are provided. Observation, hypothesis testing, and social scientist techniques are utilized to develop reflective teachers both in theoretical knowledge and practice within a field placement. Classroom management, motivation, and behavior analyses are emphasized. This course is tailored to meet the developmental needs of elementary learners. Field placement required.

EDUC 321 Curr & Instruct I: Middle School 4 (3-4)
Includes both campus and field study of learning environments, instructional methods, and assessment, particularly as it pertains to 5th - 8th grades. Class sessions emphasize lesson planning, curricular theory, instructional strategies, and literacy across the curriculum. A minimum of 36 hours in a middle school classroom is required. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 322 Methods of TESOL 4
(Cross-listed with Engl 320) Primary topics addressed are theories of language learning, general TESOL approaches, methods for the teaching of specific langauge skills, materials preparation and assessment issues in ELL. An ESL tutoring assignment (teaching English to a nonnative speaker) brings reality to the theories. Prerequisite: World language competence through 101-level (can be taken concurrently) or permission of instructor. Engl 310 is recommended but not required.

EDUC 324 Curr & Instruct II: High School 4 (3-4)
Includes both campus and field study of learning environments, instructional methods, and assessment, particularly as it pertains to 9th-12th grades. Class sessions emphasize long-range planning, classroom management, and professional and ethical issues. A minimum of 36 hours in a high school classroom is required. This course is concurrent with EDUC 325 for 5-12 programs. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 325 Sec Curr & Instr:Content Methods 2
Subject-specific class sessions concentrate on curriculum and instruction in those subject areas. To be taken concurrently with EDUC 324 the year prior to student teaching. Not required for ENL, music, art or physical education content areas. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 330 Fine Arts for Children 3
A study of drama, art and music as it pertains to the elementary classroom; participatory experiences, integration across the arts and integration of the arts into the classroom.

EDUC 341 Mild Disabilities I 3
The study of assessment, identification, characteristics and instruction of elementary students with learning disabilities and mild cognitive disabilities provides a foundation for accommodating all students with learning challenges, regardless of eligibility for special education. Traditional and contemporary measures for assessment (including Response to Intervention) are explored and practiced within field placements. Theoretical perspectives surrounding collaboration and consultation are examined and practiced within the classroom and a field placement. Field placement in a diverse setting required. Prerequisite: Educ 300 or 302

EDUC 343 Mild Disabilities II 3
The study of assessment, identification, characteristics and instruction of elementary students with emotional disabilities and autism provides a foundation for accommodating students with difficult behaviors regardless of eligibility for special education. Special Education law and legal procedures/legislative mandates (Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plans) are explored and practiced within field placements. Field placement in a diverse setting is required. Prerequisite: Educ 300 or 302.

EDUC 344 Adapt & Assess for Diverse Learners 3
A study of multiple forms of informal and formal assessment provides a focus on selection, utilization, and interpretation of data to drive instruction. Scientifically-based interventions and instruction implementation for individuals and groups within diverse populations including general education, English Learners (EL), and special education (SPED) populations are addressed. Communication of information with parents and educator teams is a central focus. Prerequisite: Educ 300 or 302.

EDUC 346 Special Education Issues 1
Issues and debriefing within special education student teaching placements are addressed. To be completed concurrently with EDUC 415. Prerequisites: Educ 300 or 302, Educ 341, 343, and 344.

EDUC 348 Teaching Adolescents/Except Needs 3
The study of assessment, identification, characteristics, and instruction of adolescents with disabilities. Focuses on methods that accommodate the academic, social, cognitive, and physical needs of the adolescent with disabilities. Explores components of Individual Educational Plans specific to adolescents with disabilities. Field placement in a diverse middle school or high school required.

EDUC 401 Child Development Practicum 1
A study of child development. Focuses on learning theory and the importance of play for young children. Will include a field experience based on the application of developmentally appropriate practice. Required for elementary K-6, K-12 art, ENL, music and physical education content areas.

EDUC 402 Student Teaching:Elementary 12
At least 13 weeks of full-day student teaching in elementary schools under the supervision of a licensed elementary teacher and a faculty member from the GC education department. Includes several workshops on campus to reflect on important teaching issues.

EDUC 403 Secondary Education Seminar 3
An intensive three-week seminar immediately following Educ 405 that focuses on educational philosophy, collaboration with families, integration of faith and teaching, different school models, use of student learning data, and interview preparation. Includes student projects and presentations, group work, individual reflection on teaching, guest presenters, and preparation of professional portfolios. Concurrent: Educ 405.

EDUC 405 Student Teaching:Secondary 12
At least 13 weeks of full-day student teaching in a secondary school under the supervision of a teacher licensed in the student teacher's major teaching area and a GC faculty member. Includes several workshops on campus to reflect on important teaching issues.

EDUC 406 Literacy II: Diagnostic 3
A second course in literacy focusing on observing and recording children's literacy behaviors closely to be able to support struggling readers and writers and prevent further difficulties in developmentally appropriate ways. Emphasis on strategic, standards-based and student-centered teaching, grounded in the psychosocio-linguistic nature of language. Includes tutoring a struggling reader. Prerequisite: Educ 303. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 407 Field Studies 1 (1-2)
Individualized field work to supplement required education field placements.

EDUC 408 Studies in Education 1
Individual study or research to supplement required education coursework.

EDUC 409 Elementary Education:Seminar 3
An intensive three-week seminar immediately following Educ 402 that focuses on educational philosophy, collaboration with families, integration of faith and teaching, different school models, use of student learning data, and interview preparation. Includes student projects and presentations, group work, individual reflection on teaching, and preparation of professional portfolios. Concurrent: Educ 402.

EDUC 410 Transition to Teaching Practicum 6
Student teaching for those enrolled in the Transition to Teaching program (TtT). Requires at least 13 weeks of full-day student teaching under a supervising teacher. Also includes preparation for licensure and formation of a presentation portfolio.

EDUC 414 TESOL Practicum 3
(Cross-listed with Engl 325) Supervised teaching in the U.S. or abroad when appropriate supervision can be arranged. Teacher Education students seeking a K-6 or 5-12 ELL certification who do their student teaching in ELL do not need to take this course. Non-Teacher Education students should take the course for 3 credits (80 hours of teaching). Prerequisite: Engl 320 and consent of instructor.

EDUC 415 Student Teaching:Exceptional Needs 5
Student teaching encompasses 200 hours in a mild disability context under the close supervision of a supervising teacher licensed for mild disabilities and a Goshen College faculty member. This experience focuses on assessment, lesson planning, instruction, and intervention. To be completed concurrently with Educ 346. Prerequisite: Educ 402.

EDUC 421 Introduction to English Learners 1
This class will introduce participants to the profession of EL and will look specifically at the policy and research that has shaped the field. It will also address the core principles of first- and second-language acquisition that underlie the program's coursework.

EDUC 425 EL Methods 3
The primary emphasis of this class is to learn specific instructional approaches for second language acquisition. Participants will learn methods for adapting instructional materials for their current classes to ensure all students can meet all academic content standards, and will learn how to provide equitable and appropriate assessment for EL students. Participants will also complete several observation hours in a direct serve EL classroom.

EDUC 450 Professional Capstone 2
In this capstone course, participants will address topics related to collaboration and advocacy, as well as the intersection of culture with students' experiences of school. The class will meet in face-to-face format for one month, then participants will complete a capstone project and take the state's licensure exam in June.

English courses

ENGL 105 Introduction to College Writing 3
Introduction to college-level reading and writing skills (organization, focus, clarity, and development). Successful completion of this course fulfills the pre-requisite for Core 110 Academic Voice when a student's SAT/ACT score does not meet the SAT Critical Reading or Writing score of 480 or above, or the ACT English/Writing score of 20 or above, or when a student's high school GPA indicates a need for additional development of college-level writing and study skills.

ENGL 201 World Literature 3
Study of literature written in English outside of the United Kingdom and the United States that deals in a significant way with the intersection of cultures, particularly postcolonial literature from Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Latin America. Prerequisites: CORE 110.

ENGL 203 Introduction to Creative Writing 3
An introduction to the writing of poems, short stories and creative nonfiction, with emphasis on writing, reading and discussion.

ENGL 204 Expository Writing 3
Theory and practice of written communication. Assignments in a variety of prose forms aim at developing the student's control of logic, organization, rhetoric, usage, and audience accommodation. Prerequisite: CORE 110 or equivalent.

ENGL 207 Lit of Ethnicity, Gender, Race 3
Study of literature shaped distinctively by cultural and theoretical concerns related to ethnicity, gender and race. Students may take Engl 207 more than once if different topics. Repeatable. Prerequisites:CORE 110. Specific topics announced in advance, such as American Indian literature, African-American literature, Latino literature, Mennonite literature, or women in literature.

ENGL 212 Word and Image 3
This course explores the relationship between visual and verbal art. Students develop skills in describing and analyzing visual and verbal works of art including ekphrasis, the attempt to imitate visual art in writing. Students will contribute to class dialogue about how words and images work together, culminating in a final research project on a conversation between verbal and visual works. They will also create their own visual and verbal works of art. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

ENGL 213 Shakespeare and Film 3
Why is Shakespeare still relevant today, across a diverse range of cultures and contexts? This course investigates the relationship between selected plays and their adaptations in film and popular culture. Students will develop skills in reading and interpreting texts of Shakespeare's plays and also skills in visual and cultural analysis of films they have inspired. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

ENGL 230 Literature and Popular Culture 3
Study of literature in relation to film, television, or other media of popular culture. Specific topics will be announced in advance. Repeatable.

ENGL 235 Comics and Graphic Novels 3
Students will focus mostly on relatively recent texts defined and marketed as graphic novels or graphic ?narratives,? and we?ll be working to determine the cultural meaning and significance?if any?of the two genres? unique qualities, as well as why both genres matter. While the reading list focuses on character-based works, particularly memoir, as well as fiction about family and youth culture, students will also explore other categories of visual narratives, from superhero comics to manga. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

ENGL 280 Sophomore Writing Portfolio 1
Guided instruction on portfolio development, including editing and revising skills needed for advanced writing courses. Students should meet with the English writing program adviser in the fall of their sophomore year to determine the best semester to complete this project. Prerequisite: Engl 204 and one additional writing course. Course grade will be Credit/No Credit.

ENGL 290 English Publication 1 (1-2)
Applied work in publication (Pinchpenny Press, Broadside, Red Cents, the department newsletter or blog). Students choosing to publish with Pinchpenny Press must register for this course, select a faculty adviser, and fulfill stated requirements. Repeatable. Prerequisite: Engl 204 and two additional writing courses, and consent of instructor. Course grade will be Credit/No Credit.

ENGL 300 Philosophy, Interpret, and Culture 3
This course examines critical interpretive strategies and theories as applied to several literary genres. In addition, the course introduces students to important research skills involved in the production of literary criticism. Intended as an introduction to the English major and as an elective for other (usually upper-level) students. Prerequisite: CORE 110 and any college-level literature course.

ENGL 301 British Literature I 3
Development of British literature from Beowulf through the medieval period, Renaissance, and 18th century, with special attention to questions of canon, context, and identity. Prerequisite: CORE 110.

ENGL 302 British Literature II 3
Development of British literature from the Romantic era through the Victorian, modern and post-modern periods, with special attention to issues of modernity, industrialization, imperialism, and globalization. Prerequisite: CORE 110.

ENGL 303 American Literature I 3
Development of American literature, culture, and literary identity from colonial times through the 19th century. Prerequisite: CORE 110.

ENGL 305 Genre Studies 4
Study of a single genre as announced, sometimes with focus on writings of a specific period or place. Typical offerings include history of the novel or contemporary poetry. Repeatable. Prerequisite: CORE 110.

ENGL 306 Major Author 3
A study of a major author or of two authors in comparison. Courses have included Shakespeare, Chaucer, Faulkner and Morrison. Repeatable. Prerequisite: CORE 110.

ENGL 307 Lit of Ethnicity, Gender & Race 3
Similar to Engl 207, with reading and research assignments that broaden and deepen the student's engagement with the topic. Students may take Engl 307 more than once if different topics. Contemporary African Literature and Diverse Voices in American Literature-AW are offered only as 307. Contemporary African Literature explores recent work in English written by authors of African origins. Diverse Voices in American Literature explores the diversification of the American Canon and the representations of diverse "others" primarily in literature of the 20th and 21st centuries. Repeatable. Prerequisite: CORE 110.

ENGL 309 American Literature II 3
Development of American literature from the late 19th century to the present. Study of literature that explores American identities, including European-American, American Indian and African-American. Repeatable. Prerequisite: CORE 110.

ENGL 310 Introduction to Linguistics 3
Different ways of looking at how languages function as systems of sounds, word structures, grammatical patterns and meaning. Insights useful for language learning, teaching and appreciation of English and language in general. Also counts as a language pre-requisite for non-French or Spanish SST units.

ENGL 312 Writing Workshop 1
Intensive one-week workshop in writing, usually conducted by a visiting author during Spring semester. Repeatable. Prerequisite: Any college-level creative writing course or permission of department chair. Course grade will be Credit/No Credit.

ENGL 315 Global English 3
The study of the sound system, history, and varieties of the English language, followed by exploration of current developments in sociolinguistics, dictionaries, and word formation. The course cultivates an informed attitude toward English usage. Prerequisite: Core 110 or equivalent.

ENGL 319 English Grammar 1
A detailed study of the grammar of English. Designed especially for future teachers of ELL or high school English. Prerequisite: Previous or concurrent enrollment in Engl 310 or foreign language competence through the 102 level.

ENGL 320 Methods of TESOL 4 ()
(Cross-listed with Educ 322) Primary topics addressed are theories of language learning, general TESOL approaches, methods for the teaching of specific language skills, materials preparation and assessment issues in ELL. An ESL tutoring assignment (teaching English to a nonnative speaker) brings reality to the theories. Prerequisite: World language competence through 101-level (can be taken concurrently with ENGL 320) or permission of instructor. Engl 310 is recommended but not required.

ENGL 325 TESOL Practicum 3 ()
(Cross-listed with Educ 414) Supervised teaching in the U.S. or abroad when appropriate supervision can be arranged. Teacher Education students seeking a K-6 or 5-12 ELL certification who do their student teaching in ELL do not need to take this course. Non-Teacher Education students should take the course for 3 credits (80 hours of teaching). Prerequisite: Engl 320 and consent of instructor.

ENGL 330 Writing Fiction 3
A workshop course in writing short fiction, with special attention to issues of setting, character, plot, dialogue and point of view. Readings by contemporary writers. Prerequisite: CORE 110, Engl 203 or consent of instructor.

ENGL 332 Writing Poetry 3
A workshop course in writing poetry in a variety of forms, with special attention to imagery, sound, line, meter and revision. Readings in classic and contemporary poetry. Prerequisite: CORE 110, Engl 203 or consent of instructor.

ENGL 334 Writing Creative Nonfiction 3
A workshop course in writing the personal essay and nonfiction prose, with special attention to creating a personal voice and applying creative writing techniques to nonfictional subjects. Students will read and discuss examples of creative nonfiction and prepare two longer essays for a final portfolio. Prerequisite: CORE 110, Engl 203 or consent of instructor.

ENGL 336 Special Topics in Writing 3
A workshop course in special writing topics such as Memoir or Editing and Publishing. Prerequisite: CORE 110, Engl 203 or consent of instructor.

ENGL 365 Literature in London 4
An off-campus May term class studying British literature in the context of contemporary London?s global, intercultural literary and cultural economy. Activities center around museum visits, performances, guest speakers, and cultural events representing ethnic diversity. In addition to reading literature, students research cultural, historical, economic and social issues for a final presentation. Most recent offerings have focused on literature from African and Caribbean countries. Offered during May term in alternate years. Extra Cost. Pre-requisite: Core 110 Academic Voice or equivalent. The course can count for English elective credit or SST alternate credit, but not both.

ENGL 408 English Writing Practicum 2
English Writing majors develop a final writing portfolio under supervision of faculty adviser. Recommended for fall semester of the senior year. Prerequisite: Engl 204, 280, three English writing courses, and permission of instructor. Course grade will be Credit/No Credit.

ENGL 409 English Practicum 2 (1-2)
English majors propose independent projects in research, off-campus field experience, or internship. Prerequisite: Engl 204, 300, three upper-level literature courses, and permission of instructor. Course grade will be Credit/No Credit.

ENGL 410 Senior Seminar 3 (1-2)
Students will discuss practical, professional, and ethical dimensions of their Goshen College education. They will engage in a common reading experience, conduct a final project, interview professionals in their aspirational fields, and prepare a capstone portfolio that reflects designated learning outcomes.

French courses

FREN 101 Elementary French I 4
Basic skills in understanding, speaking, reading and writing French for beginners.

FREN 102 Elementary French II 4
Basic skills in understanding, speaking, reading and writing French for beginners. Prerequisite: Fren 101 or equivalent on placement test.

FREN 103 Elementary French III 4
Emphasis on basic communication skills in the target language and culture. Normally offered only on SST. Prerequisite: Fren 102 or equivalent.

FREN 201 Intermediate French I 4
Grammar review with reading and discussion in French. Normally offered only on SST. Prerequisite: Fren 102 or equivalent.

FREN 202 Intermediate French II 4
Reading and discussion of prose, poetry and drama. Grammar review, oral and written practice. Normally offered only on SST. Prerequisite: Fren 201 or equivalent.

FREN 203 Intermediate French III 4
Emphasis on conversational French. Normally offered only on SST. Prerequisite: Fren 201 or equivalent.

History courses

HIST 101 Ancient Roots of Cultures 3
An exploration of the origins of humanity's basic social institutions as they developed from earliest times up to 1300, in different ways in different areas of the world. The course also introduces the analysis of primary sources in reaching conclusions to our questions about origins, interactions and difference. A Social World course in the Goshen Core.

HIST 102 Becoming Modern: Individualism 3
This course explores the roots of western individualism. It will survey the sweep of western history, with a particular focus on competing sources of authority and the rise of modern individualism. The concept of the individual as the central point of reference--the idea that the source of authority resides in an individual conscience or sentiment--is a historical creation of the modern West. Other cultures have quite different understandings of authority. Where did the Western view of the individual come from? What are its historical roots? What are its strengths and limitations? A Social World course in the Goshen Core.

HIST 105 American History I 3
History of the American colonies and the United States through the Civil War and Reconstruction. Also introduces the study of history as an academic discipline.

HIST 204 What is the Good Life? 3
Why do humans long for utopia, yet consistently fail to produce it? To what extent do we assert our individual freedom in creating the communities we live in, and to what extent do we recognize our lives as resting on forces beyond our control? Is it still possible, in our postmodern context, to anticipate the future with hope? Drawn from five centuries of utopian thought, the readings, discussions and assignments in this course will focus on three general themes: human nature, human community, and human encounters with Transcendence. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

HIST 205 Immigration and American Identity 3
Once I thought to write a history of the immigrants in America. Then I discovered that the immigrants were American history,? historian Oscar Handlin quipped in 1951. This class follows this premise outside of the classroom, from Chicago to Notre Dame to Goshen to Shipshewana and Amish Country, interspersed with 4 sessions for on-campus reflection, reading, and project-based work. We will immerse ourselves in, and study, specific local religio-ethnic groups in order to enable a concrete experience. The understanding of these groups is the first learning goal of the class. The second one is to decenter the migration story away from current hot button political issues to help us understand that any American migration story, especially Midwestern ones, is part of a global story that has shaped all eras of American history from various points on the globe. Finally, the class calls on students to critically investigate their own identity in conversation with the other worlds they will encounter, construct their own journeys and boundaries, and critically interrogate the theme of global citizenship.

HIST 211 Revolution! 3
How does radical social, political and economic change occur and what are its consequences? Examines the major political "revolutions" in world history from the French Revolution to Cuba and beyond, as well as addressing the larger revolutionary changes since 1500, from the abolition of slavery to women's rights and independence from imperialism. A Social World course in the Goshen Core.

HIST 212 Thinking About the Dead 3
Why do we remember the past? How do we talk about those that have died and can?t talk back anymore? How do we judge their good and terrible choices that still affect us? This course explores how wrestling with these big questions moves us beyond our degree, and connects us to meaningful careers and empathetic leadership by understanding ourselves and others better. It includes hands-on study about how, and what, our home culture chooses to remember today - and what it prefers to forget - including an exploration of the local history that surrounds us in Elkhart County. And it provides opportunities to become skillful in library and internet research, and to improve our writing and speaking skills.

HIST 214 American Culture Wars 3
Supposedly, the United States is as divided as never before, we heard after the 2016 election. And we heard after Barack Obama?s re-election. And after the murder of George Tiller. And Trayvon Martin. The fight over the Equal Rights Amendment. The rise of Rush Limbaugh. Of white suburbia. And of Louis Farrakhan, and Jerry Falwell. The shooting of Ronald Reagan, Roe vs. Wade, the Stonewall Riots, the Kent State Massacre. Christian Left. Christian Right. How come that America?s most prosperous years are also perceived as its most divisive, since the Civil War? How in the world did the path lead to Trump? Or is the image of the ?divided nation? not new after all, but a common theme in the ever-changing battles over what it means to be American? A Social World course in the Goshen Core.

HIST 217 Geography and Culture 3
Survey of the world's geographic regions with emphasis on 1) the impact humans have had on the physical environment and 2) the origins of cultural variation in the world's regions. Includes regular discussion of current issues in world affairs and mapping skills. Required for students majoring in elementary education and secondary social studies. A Social World course in the Goshen Core.

HIST 218 Anabaptism in Global Context 3
The Anabaptist-Mennonite tradition has undergone a profound transformation during the past 50 years moving from a largely white, Euro-American denomination into a truly multi-cultural, global church. Drawing on the research projects of the Institute for the Study of Global Anabaptism and a wide range of primary and secondary sources, this class will explore the history, faith and practices of groups in the Anabaptist-Mennonite tradition, with a strong emphasis on the global church. How did this process of globalization come about? What are the challenges of identity, unity, and growth in a global church? What is the future of this tradition?

HIST 284 Race and Religion 3
The ?American Way? about race and to religion is, for lack of a better term, exceptional. It caused at least one civil war; yet the U.S. are supposedly post-racial now; It lies at the root of the fabled ?First Thanksgiving,? but is shunned as impolite around Thanksgiving dinners today. Both taboo and fascination, anyone seeking to understand, serve and contribute to this part of the world will have to grasp this story and its continuing legacies of racisms. But where to start the story of this original American conflict, older than coasts and flyover country, older than Republican and Democrat? Who are the characters, what?s the plot, the motif? What?s the morale? And how to engage it today, in your college lives and your careers?

HIST 304 Renaissance and Reformation 3
Topical survey of European civilization in the period from about 1300 to 1550. Intellectual, cultural and religious changes will receive most attention.

HIST 314 Modern China 3
Exploration of Chinese history with a view to understanding contemporary political, social, and economic developments. About one-third of the course looks at traditional Chinese society and culture, and the remainder examines developments since 1911 and especially since the establishment of the People's Republic in 1949.

HIST 315 War/Peace 20th Century Europe 3
Exploration of major European political, cultural, intellectual and economic developments since the 1890s. Major themes include: modernism, the onset of totalitarianism and totalitarian regimes in Europe and the Soviet Union, war as an agent of social change, the Cold War, the dissolution of Soviet-style communism in Eastern Europe and peace-making efforts throughout the century.

HIST 318 Anabaptist/Mennonite History 3
Introduction to Mennonite history and thought. About one-third of the course is devoted to Anabaptism. Special attention given to distinctive Anabaptist religious ideas, changes in Mennonite religious ideas and practice in Europe, migrations, contrasts in social-communal practices among Mennonites and related groups.

HIST 321 History of Mennonites in America 3
Emphasis on Mennonites as a people developing and interacting with the larger American society, using themes such as migration, community formation, beliefs, acculturation and pacifist citizenship in war and peace.

HIST 323 Colonial & Revolutionary America 3
Focus on cultural encounters and conflicts. Colonialism begs the question, how are cultures transported, replicated, and transformed? A look at contact between Europeans and Native Americans, between Europeans and Africans, between different European colonial projects, and finally between Anglo-American colonists and Britain. All involved sharp cultural conflict.

HIST 324 Slavery, Civil War & Reconstruction 3
Exploration of the central role of slavery in American society and politics, including its role in the Civil War and in Reconstruction. Other themes include the relationship of religion and war, postwar constructions of race and racism, and the memory of the Civil War.

HIST 326 Recent American History 3
A look at events that shaped the most recent generations of Americans. From grand expectations of the Civil Rights movement, faith in science, and the possibilities of affluence and social reform, society confronted the realities of Vietnam, Watergate and environmental destruction - producing cynicism, culture wars and continued efforts to balance liberty and equality.

HIST 327 U.S. Immigration and Ethnic History 3
An examination of the development of ethnic and racial identities in the United States, from the colonial period(s) to the present. Immigration patterns, forced migration, assimilation, ethnicization, nativism, family and gender dynamics, immigration and naturalization law and multicultural debates were important factors in these processes.

HIST 328 African-American History 3
Historical study of the experience of African-Americans as a group, especially their political and economic situations, their community life, some of their outstanding organizations and leaders, their forms of adjustment and resistance and their participation and contributions in U.S. life.

HIST 330 Gender in World History 3
A comparative studies in world history course. Looking at history from the perspective of gender and gender relations provides a new way of seeing historical change. This course takes case studies from the non-Western world and looks at the agency of women and men in determining their own future. Gendered history unsettles older historical paradigms and challenges our ethnocentric assumptions.

HIST 335 History of Ethnic Conflict 3
A comparative studies in world history course. The world seems plagued with increasing conflict between ethnic groups. Explores the historical roots of this problem through a comparative case-study approach and takes an interdisciplinary approach both to analysis of the problem and its solution. Students will present an in-depth research paper on the historical roots of one conflict.

HIST 340 Religious History of Africa 3
A comparative studies in world history course. Examination of the development and interaction of the three major religious traditions of Africa--African religion, Christianity and Islam--from earliest times to the present. The course will look at the particularly African forms of Christianity and Islam that were created by converts in various contexts and the social and political implications of religious practice. There will be some attention to the spread of African religious forms within the diaspora.

HIST 344 Latin American History 3
A study of the history of Latin America, with special emphasis on different regions and time periods according to the expertise of the professor.

HIST 345 Environmental History 3
A comparative studies in world history course. Exploration of human interaction with the environment over time particularly in the non-Western world. Examination of the material and ideological conditions which have led to preservation or destruction of the environment through a comparative case-study approach.

HIST 350 African History 3
African history from ancient times to the present with an emphasis on topical studies of land and food, slavery and social reciprocity, and colonial transformations in political authority. Encourages historical analysis for the purpose of responding positively to pessimistic predictions of Africa's future and appreciating Africa's strengths.

HIST 351 Representations in Public History 3
This is the second course in the Public History concentration. In studying a particular group of people, like Native Americans of the Southwest or Amish of Northern Indiana, the course investigates a critical issue in public history: how a community is represented and who gets to decide. We will visit museums, heritage sites, and local businesses, work with local people to hear their various perspectives on the issue, study their history and explore the ethical and legal issues involved in representation.

HIST 353 Public History 3
An introduction to the field of public history as a career and an approach to communicating and preserving historical knowledge. Students will complete applied local history projects to engage the history of this community and both the public history professionals and general public in the region. They will learn best practices in the field and apply them in field trips to local heritage sites.

HIST 375 Topics 3
Study on a selected topic in American or world history. Examples: History of the Southwest; Model United Nations. Students may be invited to help shape the topic.

HIST 400 Advanced Study 1 (1-4)
Special topics for majors and minors.

HIST 409 Internship 2
Using research, writing and organizational skills in a setting outside the classroom; deliberate reflection on the process of historical or legal inquiry.

HIST 410 Seminar: Historical Thinking 3
Philosophy and purposes of history; principles and methods of historical research; history and Christian faith; choice of a topic and bibliographical work and initial research on that topic. Course to be taken in the fall semester of the junior year. Required of all majors.

HIST 411 Seminar: Thesis 3
Continued research on topic chosen and presentation in forms of oral report and written thesis paper. Course to be taken in the spring semester of the senior year. Required of all majors. Prerequisite: Hist 410.

Informatics courses

Interpreting courses

INT 210 Introduction to Interpreting 3
This course will allow students to explore the basic theories, principles and practices of the interpreting profession. Areas of study will include the history and ethics of the profession, national and local organizations as well as the role and responsibilities of the professional interpreter. Cognitive models of interpreting will be introduced and used to analyze texts in preparation for ASL 301, Interpreting I. Prerequisite: ASL 201 or consent of instructor.

INT 230 Technology for Interpreters 1
This course will be devoted to developing a comprehensive electronic portfolio where students will integrate multiple academic projects and assignments completed during the program into a professional website to generate a significant presence in the field. Technology tools, such as apps, applicable to interpreters will be discussed.

INT 301 Interpreting 1 4
This course is designed to develop interpreting skills through the use of interactive video and out-of-class interpreting opportunities. Students will demonstrate competency in comprehending, transferring, and reformulating the message from spoken English to ASL. Prerequisite: ASL 204, Corequisite: ASL 307 or consent of instructor.

INT 302 Interpreting 2 4
This course continues the development of simultaneous ASL/English interpreting skills and provides extensive practice utilizing video and out-of-class interpreting opportunities. Prerequisite: ASL 301 or consent of instructor.

INT 305 Medical Interpreting 4
This course will focus on interpreting in medical settings. Students will learn about the U.S. healthcare system including the participants, settings, terminology and culture. The course uses critical analysis of medical discourse with an emphasis on common medical conditions, treatments, and procedures. Prerequisite: ASL 204 and 307.

INT 310 Performance Interpreting 3 (1-3)
This course provides students with an experiential learning opportunity to interpret plays on campus and in collaboration with The Round Barn Theater. Students will work with the instructor and peers to analyze scripts, assign roles, translate the dialogue, and interpret the plays. Students may register for 1-3 credits. This course may be repeated. Prerequisite: ASL 204 and 307. Corequisite: INT 301.

INT 320 Sign to Voice Interpreting 4
This course is designed to develop interpreting skills in sign to voice interpreting. Students will learn to voice consecutively and simultaneously by using video of signers who use a variety of signing modalities. Prerequisite: INT 301 or consent of instructor.

INT 380 The Deaf Community: Subcultures 3
This course is divided into four modules, with each module focusing on a specific area of interpreting. Students will practice specialized vocabulary, participate in simulated interpreting experiences, apply ethical decision making, and discuss challenges faced when working in each setting: DeafBlind interpreting, mental health interpreting, legal interpreting, and interpreting for atypical signers. Prerequisite: INT 302 or consent of the instructor.

INT 401 Interpreting 3 4
This course provides extensive hands-on practice using skills, strategies, and techniques learned in previous interpreting courses. The course will focus on interactive interpreting between spoken English and ASL. During this course students will also apply for internship opportunities. Prerequisite: INT 320 and INT 320 or consent of instructor.

INT 405 Transliterating 3
This course focuses on transferring information from spoken or written English into Conceptually Accurate signed English (CASE). Students will practice transliterating skills through various planned and unplanned situations. Students will discuss issues related to interpreting in classrooms at the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary levels. Students will analyze the major transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood and the changes required in professional roles, responsibilities, and ethical decision-making. Topics will include: working with children and adolescents, their parents, and educators; sign systems used in educational settings; educational goals and language policies; certification issues; working conditions; analyzing classroom interpreting tasks; and knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed for educational interpreting. Prerequisite: INT 302 or consent of instructor.

INT 407 Interpreting Ethics & Certification 3
This course will allow students to explore practical and ethical issues in interpreting. Topics will include decision-making, assignment assessment, managing the environment, state licensure requirements, and national certification. Students are required to take the written portion of the RID certification examination. Prerequisite: INT 302, 305, and 320 or consent of instructor.

INT 409 Interpreting Internship 12
Supervised interpreting experience through placement in various community settings. Internship typically takes place during the first 12 weeks of spring semester of the senior year. Prerequisites: INT 401, 405 and 407. Corequisite: INT 410.

INT 410 Senior Seminar 1
Students reflect on ethical dilemmas, problems or conflicts encountered during their 12-week internship (INT 409), with the goal of learning and growing from the collective discussion and experiences. In addition, students will set goals for themselves related to career, vocation and job procurement and create tools to assist in achieving their goals following graduation. Prerequisite: INT 401, 405 and 407. Corequisite: INT 409.

International studies courses

INTL 210 Study & Sports Abroad 4
A May term course in Latin America that includes Spanish language study as well as coursework and field trips in Latin American history and culture. Students live with families and participate in limited service projects. Journal writing is required. Designed for members of different college sports teams, with games played with local teams. Other students may join the course depending on space and compatibility. Prerequisite: One semester of college-level Spanish and attendance at pre-trip preparation sessions in the Spring Semester. Total of 4 credits applicable to SST alternative requirements.

INTL 230 Intercultural Service Learning 3
A field assignment in an intercultural setting through an approved agency or placement site. Arranged by the student with the international education director.

INTL 250 Cultural Perspectives: 3
Students learn from a variety of perspectives as they relate to a new culture in an immersive context and, in the process, learn about themselves. This course develops understanding and skills for communicating and working across cultures and encourages the cultural competence important to succeed in the global community.

INTL 251 CP: 3
Students learn from a variety of perspectives as they relate to a new culture in an immersive context and, in the process, learn about themselves. This course develops understanding and skills for communicating and working across cultures and encourages the cultural competence important to succeed in the global community.

INTL 252 History & Culture of. . . 3
Specific study of SST location.

INTL 253 History & Culture of Latinos in US 3
An overview of past and contemporary experiences of different U.S. Latino subgroups, with an emphasis on the experiences of Latinos in the MIdwest and Northern Indiana. Reflection and exploration of topics such as Latino culture, history, politics, economics, and other social issues through classroom teaching, interaction with members of the Latino community, and field trips to Latino communities.

INTL 254 Intercultural Communication 3
Intercultural communication study on SST location.

INTL 256 Arts & Literature of . . . 2
Arts and literature study on SST location.

INTL 257 Arts & Literature of Latinos in US 3
Issues of identity and social justice in contemporary U.S. Latino/a literature and arts. Examines how writers and artists express and enact what it means to be an American and a Latino in our contemporary culture. Students will explore the historical context of Latino/a art and literature as well as the influence of Latino traditions, experiences, and immigration stories.

INTL 258 Natural World of . . . 1
Natural world study on SST location.

INTL 260 Global Topics: 3
The course for the interdisciplinary academic content in the ?study? portion of SST: lectures, field trips and reading/writing. It will focus on one local theme or issue shaped by global forces. Students will explore a topical question historically, politically, sociologically, economically, environmentally and in the arts with local experts.

INTL 270 Community Eng Learning: 3
A volunteer placement in an immersive community setting with an organization that serves the community in the ?service? portion of the semester, plus an action-research project. This action oriented mode of learning will help students develop their own sense of social responsibility in a cross-cultural setting. The research project will use interview and participant-observation methodologies.

INTL 271 CEL: 3
A volunteer placement in an immersive community setting with an organization that serves the community in the ?service? portion of the semester, plus an action-research project. This action oriented mode of learning will help students develop their own sense of social responsibility in a cross-cultural setting. The research project will use interview and participant-observation methodologies.

Kinesiology courses

KIN 102 First Aid & CPR 1
The course provides an introduction to first aid, practical experience in basic first aid skills, first aid for specific sport injuries and a practical guide to sport related liability. Successful completion of the course may result in certification for one year. Students need to pay a fee to American Red Cross for certification.

KIN 103 Basic Athletic Training 2
This course is valuable to anyone who plans to coach or pursue future certification in athletic training. Topics covered include: emergency procedures, evaluation and management of injuries to the foot, ankle, knee, shoulder, elbow and hand. Students learn taping techniques.

KIN 200 Aerobic Conditioning 1
Aerobic Conditioning

KIN 206 Badminton 1
Badminton

KIN 210 Canoeing/Backpacking 1
Canoeing/Backpacking

KIN 214 Cross Country Skiing 1
Minimum 20 hours of ski time required for credit, in addition to class time and homework assignments. Students must provide own cross country skis and poles. Students will ski during class and outside of class when snow is present.

KIN 216 Cycling 1
Cycling

KIN 218 Golf 1
Golf

KIN 222 Gymnastics: Tumbling 1
Gymnastics: Tumbling

KIN 224 International Folk Dance 1
International Folk Dance

KIN 226 Life Guard Training 1
Life Guard Training

KIN 230 Racquetball 1
Racquetball

KIN 232 Beginning Swimming 1
Beginning Swimming

KIN 234 Advanced Swimming 1
Advanced Swimming

KIN 236 Beginning Tennis 1
Tennis instruction.

KIN 238 Beginning Volleyball 1
Volleyball instruction.

KIN 240 Water Safety Instruction 2
Water Safety Instruction

KIN 242 Weight Training 1
Weight Training. (Women's weight training or COED)

KIN 250 Introduction to Kinesiology 3
This course provides an introduction to the field of kinesiology and includes an overview and history of kinesiology, physical education, sport and exercise science. The timeline begins with early civilization and continues through modern events including the Olympics. Additionally, a variety of philosophical approaches and their implications are discussed.

KIN 251 Officiating 1
In this course, students will learn about and practice skills for sport officiating, refereeing and umpiring. Some class activities will focus on volleyball, basketball, soccer or baseball/softball, however, each student will complete focused assignments on their particular sport of interest. In depth knowledge of rules for the sport of choice will be required. Additionally, students will practice professional skills (decision making, hand signals, communication, handling disputes, etc.) by officiating actual games. This practical component is required part of the course.

KIN 255 Camping and Recreation 3
Students will have hands-on experience in a wilderness setting. They will learn a variety of skills including: trip planning, map and compass reading, environmental care and study, spiritual growth and leadership skills. Other skills will be related specifically to either backpacking and/or canoeing.

KIN 259 Intercollegiate Softball 1
For varsity athletes competing in Intercollegiate Softball. A CR/NC course.

KIN 260 Intercollegiate Baseball 1
For varsity athletes competing in Intercollegiate Baseball. A CR/NC course.

KIN 261 Intercollegiate Basketball 1
For varsity athletes competing in Intercollegiate Basketball. A CR/NC course.

KIN 262 Intercollegiate Cross Country 1
For varsity athletes competing in Intercollegiate Cross Country. A CR/NC course.

KIN 265 Intercollegiate Soccer 1
A varsity athlete competing in Intercollegiate Soccer. A CR/NC course.

KIN 266 Intercollegiate Tennis 1
A varsity athlete competing in Intercollegiate Tennis. A CR/NC course.

KIN 267 Intercollegiate Track 1
A varsity athlete competing in Intercollegiate Track. A CR/NC course.

KIN 268 Intercollegiate Volleyball 1
A varsity athlete competing in Intercollegiate Volleyball. A CR/NC course.

KIN 269 Sports Medicine Practicum 1
For this practicum, the student will work with the Head Athletic Trainer, expanding first aid and CPR proficiencies and completing basic duties in the training room with sports teams. The level of responsibility assigned will be individualized based on certifications, knowledge base and experience.

KIN 308 Teaching Sport Skills & Strategies 3
This is an applied course focusing on skill techniques and strategies in a variety of sports. Content includes theory, best practice in secondary level pedagogy and skill content. There is a special focus on organization and management for teaching, skill progressions, and common problems/corrections of basic and intermediate-level skills and tactics.

KIN 309 Physical Education for Children 3 (2-3)
Philosophy, methods and materials for teaching physical education to children. Some practical experience with children included. While this course is open to any student, there is a clear focus on preparing students to teach elementary physical education.

KIN 310 Introduction to Sport Management 3
A focus on administrative practices in the areas of legal responsibility, personnel, finance, public relations, equipment, facilities, intramurals and athletics. Sociological and psychological issues related to leadership roles in physical education and sport are included.

KIN 311 Physical Educ Teaching Internship 3
This course is designed to make sure teacher licensure students have a significant field experience at the elementary and secondary levels by the completion of their programs. If a student plans to complete the education student teaching experience (Educ 405) at the secondary level, this internship should be completed with an elementary school teacher and vice versa. Prerequisite: Kin 308 or 309.

KIN 315 Applied Biomechanics 3
A consideration of the anatomical and mechanical factors contributing to skilled performance in human movement with a focus on exercise and sport. Laws and principles from anatomy and physics that govern the use of the human body, objects and implements in a sport context are applied to the analysis of exercises and sport skill techniques. Material in this course builds on knowledge of the names and actions of muscles. Prerequisite: Biol 130 or 203.

KIN 317 Exercise Physiology 4
A study of how the human body adjusts during various kinds of exercise and adapts as a result of a regular exercise program. Analysis of neuromuscular activity, circulation, respiration and metabolism as it applies to the trained and untrained. Lab component is required. Prerequisite: Biol 130 or 203.

KIN 320 Adaptive Physical Activity & Sport 3
This course, required for all physical education teacher licensure and general physical education majors, will examine attitudes, methods, techniques, and special considerations important in addressing physical activity needs and interests of children and adolescents with disabilities. Critical aspects of motor development will be studied early in the semester, followed by adaptive programming and leadership of physical activity in inclusive settings. Field placement is required as part of the class.

KIN 330 Motor Learning 3
This course addresses concepts in the sub-discipline of motor behavior, primarily focusing on motor learning theory and psychological variables in the acquisition of motor skills. In completing this course, students will examine the nature of the learner, the learning process, the skill context, and characteristics of the task to gain information for the design of optimal motor skill learning experiences and practice.

KIN 345 Theory & Techniques of Coaching 3
The course will present an overview of basic theories and coaching applications, including topics such as philosophy, psychology, ethics, practice and game preparation. This course includes preparation for and an opportunity to take the American Sport Education Program certification exam (ASEP). ASEP certification is required for coaching in Indiana and other state public school systems.

KIN 350 Sport Culture and Psychology 3
Sport has been and continues to be an integral part of culture and tradition in every country in the world. In this course we examine the role sport plays in society, the culture of sport and team as well as some selected psychological aspects in sport. Theory and conceptual frameworks will be used in the sociological analysis of sport and the exploration of aspects of sport psychology. Topics include: influence of sport in culture, sport for political assertion and social advancement, team dynamics, role clarity, communication, cohesion, competition and cooperation, aggression and psychological aspects related to team and individual performance.

KIN 351 Event Management Practicum 1
Student works closely with the director of athletics in event management. Most events will be athletic or intramural events, but others occurring in the RFC may be included. Student outcomes that are evaluated by the supervisor include leadership, communication, and collaboration with a variety of parties. The student is expected to participate as a leader at the event, hosting guests in an appropriate manner, enforcing policy, and overseeing operation so event flows smoothly. Activities may include scheduling workers, supervising and assisting with event set-up and take down, promotion and promotional events, and problem solving, Verification of at least 50 hours of satisfactory level work (or above) must be accumulated in this practical experience along with demonstration of all outcomes listed on the syllabus. Prerequisite: KIN 310 Sport Management.

KIN 352 Personal Training Practicum 1
Students will work with a certified personal trainer to conduct basic fitness screenings and assessments, and then to develop programs with clients based on their goals and interests. The student will phase into full responsibility for conducting personal training sessions with individual clients under the guidance of the expert. Verification of at least 40 hours of satisfactory level work (or above) must be accumulated in this practical experience along with the demonstration of all outcomes listed on the syllabus. Prerequisite: Kin 400 Exercise Prescription.

KIN 353 Group Instruction Practicum 1
In this practicum experience students will work with a group fitness instructor in leading exercise classes such as aerobic dance, step aerobics, spinning, conditioning, strength and flexibility classes. Student will study techniques for directing classes and will phase into full responsibility for fitness class. Verification of at least 40 hours of satisfactory level work (or above) must be accumulated in this practical experience along with the demonstration of all outcomes listed on the syllabus. Prerequisite: Kin 400 Exercise Prescription.

KIN 354 Facility Management Practicum 1
Students work with the director of the Roman-Gingerich Recreation and Fitness Center in management aspects of this facility. Content is based in sport management (Kin 310) areas of facility design, maintenance and administration. Responsibilities include scheduling of rooms, communication and customer service activities with clients (community and student), financial transaction, problem-solving, and policy enforcement among others. The outcomes are related to giving leadership and direction at a level above a "front desk" worker. Verification of at least 50 hours of satisfactory level work (or above) must be accumulated in this practical experience along with the demonstration of all outcomes listed on the syllabus. Prerequisite: Kin 310 Sport Management.

KIN 360 Teaching Health Concepts 3
The majority of the class will focus on content knowledge development on identified health concepts and the pedagogical aspects of teaching health. Students will be required to develop lesson plans linked to K-12 health standards and will practice specific methods of teaching health in the classroom. There will be an emphasis on making topics engaging and meaningful for students at various developmental levels. Offered every other year or once in three years.

KIN 375 Exercise Testing 2
In this course, students learn exercise testing protocols, procedures and techniques recommended by the American College of Sport Medicine. Ideally, this course should be taken prior to KIN 400: Exercise Prescription since the material is closely associated. Testing and evaluation should occur prior to exercise program development and prescription. A student doing well in this class is more likely to pass the ACSM Personal Trainer certification than one who does not. Certification may require additional materials and study time.

KIN 400 Exercise Prescription 3
Students will learn how to conduct basic health screenings, risk stratification and practical fitness appraisals for the purpose of developing appropriate fitness programs for individuals. The emphasis will be on working with a client to assist him/her in the achievement of fitness goals, exercise compliance, and health behavior change. Issues of liability in exercise settings will be addressed.

KIN 405 Sport Event & Facility Management 3
This course focuses on management theory, principles and practices in the context of sport facility and event management. Students will acquire knowledge, skills and dispositions important for professional management in various types of sport facilities and for directing sport events. Related practical professional skills are also developed in the KIN 351: Event Management practicum and KIN 354: Facility Management practicum experiences.

KIN 409 Internship 3
A practical experience related to the student's interest and ability. Generally occurs in an off-campus setting. For non-teaching majors only.

KIN 410 Senior Seminar 3
An introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics in physical education and exercise science. Research methods in physical education; selection of a research problem, collection of data, basic analysis, written and oral presentation of findings. Course includes the consideration of professional and ethical issues. Required for all senior physical education and exercise science majors.

KIN 415 School and Community Health 3
An overview of community health issues and agencies. Also, components of a Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) including comprehensive school health education, physical education, school health services, nutrition services, counseling and social services, healthy school environment, school-site health promotion for staff, family and community involvement.

KIN 420 Health Practicum 2
Students will work with several different units identified in the Coordinated School Health Program and to practice teaching health in a public school setting. Cooperating staff/teachers in the school will include a health educator and as many of the following as feasible: school nurse, guidance counselor, director of food services, diabetic educator, and person on campus responsible for health/safety. Prerequisite: Kin 360 or 415.

Mathematics courses

MATH 105 Quantitative Reasoning 3
Emphasis on the ability to interpret and create quantitative information in a variety of personal, professional, and societal contexts to solve problems, understand phenomena, draw conclusions, and make decisions. Topics will include computations, measurement and units, ratios, proportions, rates, estimates, bar charts, histograms, graphs, tables, formulas, probability, descriptive statistics, and spreadsheets. Examples incorporating mathematical arguments will be taken from a wide variety of fields including social science, sports, finance, environmental issues, education, and health. This course can be used to meet the general education mathematics competency requirement and is intended for students who have not met the competency requirement by exam scores or transfer credit.

MATH 115 Applied Algebra 3
An introduction to mathematical modeling using graphical, numerical, symbolic, and verbal techniques to describe and explore real-world data and phenomena. Emphasis is on the use of elementary functions to investigate and analyze applied problems and questions, supported by the use of appropriate technology, and on effective communication of quantitative concepts and results. Recommended background: two years of high school algebra and/or geometry or Math 105.

MATH 131 Math Concepts Elem Classroom I 3
Theory of natural, rational, and real number arithmetic; computation in different numeration systems; elementary set theory and logic; number theory; probability and statistics; problem solving strategies. Linkage to mathematics education in the elementary school. Recommended background: one year of high school algebra or Math 105.

MATH 132 Math Concepts Elem Classroom II 3
Formal and informal approaches to Euclidean geometry; patterns, symmetries, classification of geometric figures in two and three dimensions; transformations in the plane; measures, measurement and approximate data; computer software applications to geometry. Linkage to mathematics education in the elementary school. Recommended background: one year of high school geometry.

MATH 141 Finite Mathematics 3
Mathematics useful for solving problems from business and social sciences. Topics include linear systems of equations and inequalities, linear programming, compound interest, set theory, elementary counting principles, probability, and statistics. Recommended background: three years of high school algebra and geometry or Math 115.

MATH 170 Functions, Data, and Models 4
Symbolic, graphical, numerical, and verbal representations of functions to model real-world phenomena and the use of data to fit and verify models. Recommended background: three years of high school algebra and geometry or Math 115.

MATH 201 Fair Allocation 3
An examination of the fair distribution of resources such as money, goods, voting power, and jobs. Case studies might involve dividing an estate, deciding priority for organ transplant, or creating a fair system of taxation. Allocation methods will be analyzed from mathematical, economic, political, and philosophical perspectives. A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisite: Engl 105 or equivalent, quantitative literacy.

MATH 205 Discrete Mathematics 3
An introduction to mathematical thinking and reasoning. Topics include number systems and arithmetic, logic and Boolean algebra, functions and relations, set theory, algorithms, combinatorics and probability, and elementary graph theory. An emphasis is placed on problem solving and proof techniques. Recommended background: four years of high school mathematics, including some calculus or Math 211.

MATH 211 Calculus I 4
Concepts of calculus emphasizing applications in the natural and social sciences. Topics include differential calculus of one and two variables, integration, and differential equations. Prerequisites: three and one-half units of high school mathematics including trigonometry or Math 170.

MATH 212 Calculus II 4
A continuation of differential and integral calculus of a single variable from a theoretical perspective. Topics include real numbers, limit definition of the derivative and integral; exponential, logarithmic, and inverse trigonometric, functions; techniques of integration; differential equations; sequences and series; an introduction to mathematical writing and proof. Prerequisite: Math 211.

MATH 213 Multivariate Calculus 4
Differentiation and integration of functions of two and three variables and an introduction to vector calculus. Topics include optimization, vector fields, line and surface integrals, Green's Theorem. Also includes complex variables and Fourier series. Prerequisite: Math 211.

MATH 250 Game Theory 3
Mathematical models of interactions among players: people, companies, nations, or genes. Concepts include strategy, preferences, equilibrium, efficiency, solutions, and fairness properties. Applications to biology, business, economics, politics, psychology, and theology are explored. Math 250 and Math 350 are taught simultaneously. Math 250 emphasizes modeling and application of techniques. Prerequisite: Math 170.

MATH 301 Linear Algebra 3
Linear systems of equations, vector spaces, linear transformations, matrices, determinants, characteristic vectors and values, inner products, computational aspects, and applications. Prerequisite: Math 211 and either Math 205 or 212.

MATH 302 Abstract Algebra 3
An introduction to algebraic structures such as groups, rings and fields. Prerequisite: Math 211 and either Math 205 or 212.

MATH 305 Modern Geometry 3
A survey of geometrics. Comparison of Euclidean, hyperbolic, elliptical, and projective geometries. Integral and fractional dimension; transformation groups; implications for computer graphics. Prerequisite: Math 211 and either Math 205 or 212.

MATH 311 Real Analysis 3
A rigorous study of differentiation and integration of both one and several variables. Infinite series. Distance, compactness, limits of sequences, convergence, and introduction to the topology of Euclidean n-space. Prerequisite: Math 211 and either Math 205 or 212.

MATH 321 Differential Equations 3
The solution and application of ordinary differential equations; analytic solutions for linear systems; qualitative behavior of nonlinear systems; approximation and computer methods. Prerequisite: Math 211.

MATH 323 Probability and Statistics 3
An introduction to the theory, practice and computer simulation of probability and statistics. Data exploration, sample spaces, random variables, probability distributions and their derivations, probability simulations and statistical inference. Prerequisite: Math 211 and either Math 205 or 212.

MATH 350 Advanced Game Theory 3
Math 250 and 350 are taught simultaneously. Math 350 emphasizes derivation and justification for game theory techniques. Prerequisite: Math 211 and either Math 205 or 212.

MATH 351 Mathematical Modeling 3
The modeling process, built around a study of applications from a variety of both social as well as natural sciences. A variety of mathematical and computing techniques will be employed including discrete structures, probability, calculus, differential equations and algorithms. Completion of modeling projects will be a major component of the course. Prerequisites: COSC 216, and one of Math 213, 301, 321, or 323.

MATH 355 Graph Theory 3
An introduction to the concepts and techniques of graph theory with application to diverse areas such as management, computers, circuitry, communications, and social networks. Topics covered include graphs and digraphs, paths and circuits, graph and digraph algorithms, trees, cliques, planarity, duality and colorability. Prerequisite: Math 211 and either Math 205 or 212.

MATH 360 Biomathematics 3
Mathematical models for understanding biological phenomena such as population growth, drug dosage, epidemics, genetics, and cardiac function. Skills developed include the ability to analyze an unfamiliar problem, determine the type of data needed, select the appropriate mathematical tools to be applied, and evaluate the results. Prerequisites: Biol 115, 120 or 130, Math 211; and a basic understanding of statistics.

MATH 375 Special Topics 3
Classroom study of selected topics in mathematics. Topics may include: theory of computation, cryptography, complex analysis, numerical analysis, number theory, combinatorics. May be repeated. Offered according to demand. Prerequisite: Upper-level status and consent of instructor.

MATH 390 Problem Solving Seminar 1
The problem-solving process in the context of nonroutine problems, including a wide variety of general heuristics for approaching such problems. May be repeated. Prerequisite: Math 205 or 212.

MATH 409 Project/Internship 3 (0-3)
Project designed to give the student practical experience in mathematics. Each student's project is individually arranged with the instructor. Arrangements must be made at least one semester in advance.

MATH 411 Seminar:History 1
A brief survey of the history of mathematics. Prerequisite: Junior of Senior standing.

MATH 412 Seminar:Connections 1
A study of the interconnections among mathematics, other disciplines, ethics, careers, and society. Prerequisite: Math 205, 212, and two upper level Math courses.

MATH 413 Seminar:Discoveries 1
An examination of an open mathematical question and presentation of results in written and oral form. Prerequisites: Math 205, 212, and two upper level Math courses.

Modern & classical languages & literatures courses

MCLL 101 Elementary Latin I 3
Provides a thorough introduction to the Latin prose of the classical period of Roman civilization. Primary attention to building a working knowledge of Latin grammar and vocabulary, basic Latin idioms and expressions. Students will cultivate an appreciation of the eloquence of Latin prose style through reading sentences and short texts of increasing difficulty.

MCLL 111 Indonesian I 4
Offered the term prior to Indonesia Study Service Term.

MCLL 120 Khmer I 4
Offered in the term prior to Cambodia Study Service Term.

MCLL 140 Elementary Swahili I 4
Offered in the term prior to Tanzania Study Service Term.

MCLL 150 Chinese I 4
Offered in the term prior to China Study Service Term.

MCLL 375 Topics: 3
Study on a selected topic in Modern and Classical Languages and Literatures. Intended to accommodate student interest and/or faculty expertise. Topics may vary from year to year and may include international May term courses.

MCLL 400 Special Projects 3
Special Projects:

MCLL 409 Language Internship 3 (1-4)
Required of all departmental majors. Requirement usually fulfilled in extensive residence or study abroad in the language of the major, internship abroad or student teaching. Majors may also propose projects.

MCLL 410 Senior Integrating Seminar 1
Majors and faculty meet regularly for an exchange of views on such topics as vocations in foreign language and other issues related to a life-long study of language, culture, and literature in a diverse and multi-lingual global community. Involves the final assembly of a portfolio in the language of the student's major, as well as field excursions to culturally diverse communities in the area. Independent projects in research or teaching.

Music courses

MUS 102 Foundations of Music Theory 2
An introduction to the reading and interpretation of musical notation for those with limited experience. The development of basic aural and keyboard skills, along with exposure to musical forms and styles will also be included. Intended as preparation for Mus 201-202 and as an exploratory experience for all aspiring musicians. Prerequisite: a fundamental ability to read music. Pre-requisite: a fundamental ability to read music.

MUS 201 Music Theory 4
This course develops skills in analysis and composition to learn melodic, contrapuntal, harmonic, motivic, and formal principles of music towards a stronger theoretical understanding of how music is constructed. Although a variety of styles will be explored and used as examples, course materials focus on the "Common Practice Era", Western music's Baroque (1600-1750) and Classical (1750-1825) periods. The course begins with a review of foundational music theory concepts and moves through triads and seventh chords, melodic embellishments, partwriting in four-voice structure, figured bass, and diatonic harmony. The Keyboard Skills lab develops functional keyboard skills, as well as basic musicianship skills with emphasis on ear playing, reading, harmonizing, transposing, improvising, technique, and repertoire. The Aural Skills lab develops abilities in sight singing using the solfeggi system, rhythm reading, dictation, and improvisation. Each lab meets once per week. Prerequisite: must be able to read and perform music.

MUS 202 Music Theory 4
A continuation of Mus 201, this course continues the study of Western music theory via analysis and composition activities. Concepts studied include phrase structure, linear dominant chords, predominant and linear harmonic functions, melodic figuration and dissonance, deeper exploration of diatonic harmonies, the leading-tone and other seventh chords, harmonic sequences, secondary dominants, and tonicization/modulation. Participation in the keyboard and aural-skills labs is required (.5 credit hours each). Prerequisite: Mus 201. The Keyboard Skills lab develops functional keyboard skills, as well as basic musicianship skills with emphasis on ear playing, reading, harmonizing, transposing, improvising, technique, and repertoire. The Aural Skills lab develops abilities in sight singing using the solfeggi system, rhythm reading, dictation, and improvisation. Each lab meets once per week.

MUS 203 What is Music? 3
Explores the many answers to this question in different historical and cultural contexts. Considers the relationship of music to the divine or transcendent and also issues related to performance, criticism, and interpretation. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

MUS 204 Survey of Music Literature 3
Designed to follow a year of music theory and precede the study of music history, this course presents an introduction to the basic style periods in Western music literature and acquaints the student with the main forms, composers and masterworks of those epochs.

MUS 205 Music/Cultural Identity E. Europe 3
Examines the lives and music of Eastern European classical composers such as Dvorak, Chopin, Tchaikovsky and Bartok. How do national folk music traditions and social and political circumstances influence their music? An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

MUS 206 Music Theater:Styles, Expr & Cultur 3
Examines examples of musical theater, from Monteverdi's Orfeo to the musical adaptation of Victor Hugo's Les Miserables. The chief emphasis will be to better understand how ideas, emotions, and themes within an opera or musical also depict social, cultural, and theological perspectives of a given historical epoch. Conversely, music theater can also affect the social, cultural, and theological imagination of its audience. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

MUS 208 Piano Pedagogy I 3
This introductory course in the piano pedagogy sequence focuses on the beginning student and on the materials and teaching techniques most effective for this level of instruction. The course includes weekly lecture-discussion sessions, observation of class and private instruction, and the supervised teaching of weekly private lessons.

MUS 209 Music Field Experience 1 (1-3)
On-campus internships supervised by a professor. May include arts administration, audio recording technology, church music, private teaching or other fields.

MUS 210 Elementary Music Methods 3
This course is designed for teaching general music at the elementary level for elementary and music education majors. The course will introduce students to traditional and current methodologies of classroom music instruction. Emphasis on lesson planning, scope and sequence of a K-5 music program, and exploration of diverse repertoire utilizing singing and instruments. Pre-requisite: Educ 201. (Offered in odd years)

MUS 212 Intro to Conducting 1
An introductory conducting course that focuses on elementary beat patterns, use of breath and gesture of intent to start and stop musical groups, and simple cueing of parts. Basic music-reading skills are required. Non-majors are welcome.

MUS 220 El Sistema: Music for Social Change 2
Students will gain an understanding of the history and philosophy of El Sistema, the internationally renowned Venezuelan system of music education and youth/community development. With this foundation, students will explore how El Sistema?s philosophy has been adapted to new communities in the United States and abroad, including in the emerging school programs in Elkhart County, IN. Through this introduction to a unique social justice approach to music pedagogy, Goshen College students will be empowered to use El Sistema ideals and strategies in their internships and future teaching. The class will include guest presentations in person and remotely from El Sistema professionals. The course will lay the groundwork for internship options and requirements. (Offered in odd years)

MUS 231 Lyric Diction for Singers 2
This course is a diction survey course that gives the student an understanding of the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) and its application to sung diction. After becoming proficient with IPA symbols through the study of English diction, students will learn basic pronunciation rules for the other major western classical singing languages: Italian, German, and French. Students will learn diction rules and their application through board-work, singing/reciting in groups and as soloists, and extensive workbook exercises that incorporate texts from the standard vocal literature.

MUS 240 Class Voice 2
Breathing, diction and other beginning techniques of voice production learned through exercise and song. Musical and dramatic interpretation studied within a singing performance setting. This course serves as a prerequisite for private applied voice study for students without previous vocal instruction. Exceptions are determined by the voice faculty.

MUS 250 Class Piano 2 (1-2)
This course is intended as a continuation of the Piano Lab sequence associated with Music Theory to continue to prepare students for the piano proficiency exam. Skill development in ear playing, reading, transposition, harmonization, improvisation, technique and repertoire.

MUS 259 Steel Drum Ensemble 0 (0-1)
Instrumental performing ensemble. Previous steel pan experience not required, but encouraged. Available to students of all musical skills and backgrounds, however the ability to read standard notation in treble and/or bass clef is required. Rehearses once a week and performs a minimum of two times each semester. The Steel Drum Ensemble performs a wide variety of music including classical, world, pop, and traditional soca.

MUS 260 Chamber Music 1
Designed as an avenue to explore the intricacies of small ensemble playing. A pre-approved chamber group receives chamber coaching and general supervision with a music professor. The class is open to vocalists and instrumentalists.

MUS 261 Jazz Ensemble 0 (0-1)
Lavender Jazz is Goshen College's jazz ensemble. The group plays classic jazz standards and styles, such as swing, blues, waltz, mambo, cha cha and funk. Lavender Jazz performs one concert per semester in Sauder Concert Hall and performs occasionally off-campus for community events like the city of Goshen October First Friday. Other performance opportunities for the members of Lavender Jazz include performing in a jazz combo recital in Rieth Recital Hall once per semester. Both the jazz ensemble and jazz combos are frequently asked to perform for both community and private events.

MUS 262 Staged Music Scenes 0 (0-1)
Staged Music Scenes is open to music majors and nonmajors by audition, and may be taken with or without credit. Fully staged, complete productions of operas and musicals alternate with productions of programs presenting opera, operetta, or musical theater scenes. Students are taught stage movement, character development, and solo/ensemble singing that enhances their ability to perform onstage.

MUS 263 Wind Ensemble 0 (0-1)
Wind and brass students must register for both Wind Ensemble and Orchestra.

MUS 265 Composition 2
Composition

MUS 269 Percussion 2
Percussion

MUS 270 Cello 2
Cello

MUS 271 Organ 2
Organ

MUS 272 Piano 2
Piano

MUS 273 Viola 2
Viola

MUS 274 Violin 2
Violin

MUS 275 Voice 2
Voice.

MUS 277 Flute 2
Flute

MUS 278 Bassoon 2
Bassoon

MUS 279 Oboe 2
Oboe

MUS 281 French Horn 2
French Horn

MUS 282 Trumpet 2
Trumpet

MUS 283 Clarinet 2
Clarinet

MUS 284 String Bass 2
String Bass

MUS 286 Guitar 2
Guitar

MUS 287 Saxophone 2
Saxophone

MUS 288 Harpsichord 2
Harpsichord

MUS 292 Symphony Orchestra 0 (0-1)
The Goshen College Symphony Orchestra presents concerts of major orchestral works from the Baroque to contemporary periods of music each semester. In addition, it collaborates with the choirs for various performances and student winners of the annual Concerto-Aria competition. The orchestra also performs in the department's annual Festival of Carols program and hosts world-renowned guest soloists and composers. The orchestra is open to all students by audition, regardless of major.

MUS 293 Vox Profundi 0 (0-1)
The Goshen College Men's Chorus is an auditioned group of 35-55 men representing a wide variety of academic majors. The Men's Chorus performs music from all genres and time periods with special emphasis on sacred a cappella literature. The men perform in numerous on-campus concerts and occasional off-campus concerts each year, as well as on periodic tours. In addition to singing male chorus repertoire, they regularly combine in concert with the Voices of the Earth and the Symphony Orchestra to present standard choral/orchestral literature.

MUS 294 Voices of the Earth 0 (0-1)
Voices of the Earth is an auditioned group of 55-70 treble-voiced singers representing a wide variety of academic majors. Its focus is the authentic performance of music from many cultures and countries. The choir performs in numerous on-campus and off-campus concerts each year, and tours routinely. In addition to singing world music repertoire, Voices of the Earth regularly combines in concert with other Goshen College Choirs and Symphony Orchestra to present standard choral/orchestral literature.

MUS 295 Harp 2
Harp

MUS 296 Trombone 2
Trombone

MUS 297 Tuba/Euphonium 2
Tuba/Euphonium

MUS 301 History of Music 3
This survey of Western Music from antiquity through the death of J.S. Bach will focus on the following desired outcomes: 1) Develop a deeper understanding for the musical styles, genres, and composers from antiquity through the Baroque in Western music history, 2) To understand the most significant historical, philosophical, and artistic influences on music from the time of antiquity through the death of J.S. Bach, and 3) To intellectually grasp the major principles and models for musical expression in the above time periods. Prerequisite: Mus 201-202, 204 or permission of instructor. (Offered in odd years.)

MUS 302 History of Music 3
This survey of Western Music from early classicism through the 21th century will focus on the following desired outcomes: 1) To develop a deeper understanding for the musical styles, genres, and composers from the beginnings of classicism through the present, 2) To understand the most significant historical, philosophical, and artistic influences on music from the classicism of the 18th century to the present, and 3) To intellectually grasp the major principles and models for musical expression in the above time periods. Note: Students should make every attempt to take MUS 301 before 302 as several important concepts carry over from the earlier time periods into those discussed in MUS 302. Prerequisite: Mus 201-202, 204 or permission of instructor. (Offered in odd years)

MUS 303 Advanced Music Theory 3
Introduction to chromatic harmony through the study of hierarchy of chords and modulation procedures of the Classical period. Analysis of complex forms of the Baroque and the Classical periods. Formal and harmonic studies of works by Bach, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Prerequisites: Mus 201-202, 204, or permission of instructor or department chair. (Offered in even years)

MUS 304 Advanced Music Theory 3
Study of chromatic harmony through altered chords and modulation procedures of the late 18th and 19th centuries. Formal and harmonic analysis of works from the Romantic period. Introduction of the atonal theory. Studies of 20th century works and compositional techniques therein. Continuation of formal analysis of atonal works. Prerequisites: Mus 303. (Offered in even years)

MUS 305 String Methods & Materials 1
Designed for music education majors and students who are interested in learning how to play and teach stringed instruments. Students will develop proficient playing techniques in violin, viola, cello, and double bass that will allow them to adequately provide instruction to students in grades 5-12. There is a focus on pedagogical approaches and strategies for each instrument that include both individual and large-ensemble instruction. The course will provide students with specific materials and resources (method books, etude books, repertoire, etc.) appropriate for use with students in grades 5-12. (Offered in odd years)

MUS 306 Woodwind Methods & Materials 1
Designed for music education majors and students who are interested in learning how to play and teach woodwind instruments. Students will develop proficient playing techniques in flute, oboe, bassoon, clarinet, and saxophone that will allow them to adequately provide instruction to students in grades 5-12. There is a focus on pedagogical approaches and strategies for each instrument that include both individual and large-ensemble instruction. The course will provide students with specific materials and resources (method books, etude books, repertoire, etc.) appropriate for use with students in grades 5-12. (Offered in odd years)

MUS 307 Brass Methods & Materials 1
Designed for music education majors and students who are interested in learning how to play and teach brass instruments. Students will develop proficient playing techniques in trumpet, horn, trombone, euphonium, and tuba that will allow them to adequately provide instruction to students in grades 5-12. There is a focus on pedagogical approaches and strategies for each instrument that include both individual and large-ensemble instruction. The course will provide students with specific materials and resources (method books, etude books, repertoire, etc.) appropriate for use with students in grades 5-12. (Offered in even years)

MUS 308 Vocal Methods & Pedagogy 2
Required of all music-education majors and strongly recommended for all students with a voice concentration. Study of basic concepts of singing in a class setting with the goal of assisting students in becoming effective teachers of singing. Emphases will include review of basic singing technique, vocal physiology, drill in diagnosis and correction of vocal problems, diction and vocalizing for desired results. There will be a fieldwork dimension to this class. (Offered in odd years)

MUS 309 Percussion Methods & Materials 1
Designed for music education majors and students who are interested in learning how to play and teach instruments in the percussion family. Students will learn fundamentals of percussion technique with attention to preparing to provide instruction to students in grades 5-12. There is a focus on pedagogical approaches and strategies for each instrument that include both individual and large-ensemble instruction. The course will provide students with specific materials and resources (method books, etude books, repertoire, etc.) appropriate for use with students in grades 5-12. (Offered in even years)

MUS 310 Piano Pedagogy II 2
This course will survey literature appropriate for intermediate and more advanced students. In addition emphasis will also be placed on essential elements of technical development, setting up a private teaching studio, pedagogical research, and important past teachers.

MUS 311 Topics in Music Literature 2
The study of a major composer, genre or style. Prerequisites: Mus 201-202 and Mus 204 or consent permission of the instructor.

MUS 312 Conducting I 2
Principles of conducting theory and practice. Course begins with basic technique and progresses to score preparation and rehearsal planning for choral ensembles. Students are encouraged, though not required, to take Mus 212 prior to Mus 312. (Offered in even years)

MUS 318 Conducting II 2
Continued study in the theory and practice of conducting, with an emphasis on score preparation and rehearsal planning for instrumental ensembles. Prerequisite: Mus 312 or consent of instructor. (Offered in even years)

MUS 330 Secondary Music Methods 3
This course deals with the practical strategies needed to build a successful music program at the secondary level (grades 6-12). Topics studied will include: developing high quality repertoire including multicultural elements, understanding the male changing voice, program structure, student rapport and classroom management, concert programming, marketing and recruiting, assessment strategies, and teaching musical literacy. A field component provides hand-on experience to develop important teaching skills prior to student teaching. Pre-requisite: Educ 201 (Offered in even years)

MUS 355 Arts in London 4
(Cross-listed from Thea 355) A May term class that encompasses theater, art and music study and experiences in London, England. Class activities include morning lectures, visits to art galleries, attending music and theater performances, and day trips to Coventry, Stratford-upon-Avon, Salisbury and other locations. Daily writing assignments and a major project required. SST alternate course. Offered in alternate years. Extra cost.

MUS 360 Chamber Music 1
Designed as an avenue to explore the intricacies of small ensemble playing. Approved chamber groups of two to eight students work with the instructor on rehearsal techniques and music decision making in a master-class setting. The class meets weekly and is open to all vocalists and instrumentalists.

MUS 362 Staged Music Scenes 1
Staged Music Scenes is open to music majors, minors, and nonmajors by audition, and may be taken with or without credit. Fully staged, complete productions of operas and musicals alternate with productions of programs presenting opera, operetta, or musical theater scenes. Students are taught stage movement, character development, and solo/ensemble singing that enhances their ability to perform onstage.

MUS 365 Composition 2
Prerequisite: Mus 265

MUS 369 Percussion 2
Prerequisite: Mus 269

MUS 370 Cello 2
Prerequisite: Mus 270

MUS 371 Organ 2
Prerequisite: Mus 271

MUS 372 Piano 2
Prerequisite: Mus 272

MUS 373 Viola 2
Prerequisite: Mus 273

MUS 374 Violin 2
Prerequisite: Mus 274

MUS 375 Voice 2
Prerequisite: Mus 275

MUS 377 Flute 2
Prerequisite: Mus 277

MUS 378 Bassoon 2
Prerequisite: Mus 278

MUS 379 Oboe 2
Prerequisite: Mus 279

MUS 381 French Horn 2
Prerequisite: Mus 281

MUS 382 Trumpet 2
Prerequisite: Mus 282

MUS 383 Clarinet 2
Prerequisite: Mus 283

MUS 384 String Bass 2
Prerequisite: Mus 284

MUS 386 Guitar 2
Prerequisite: Mus 286

MUS 387 Saxophone 2
Prerequisite: Mus 287

MUS 388 Harpsichord 2
Prerequisite: Mus 288

MUS 390 Chamber Choir 0 (0-1)
The Goshen College Chamber Choir is the elite mixed choir on campus, drawing its members from both the Men's Chorus and the Women's World Music Choir. An auditioned group of 25-45 first-years through seniors, the Chamber Choir performs the best in choral literature from the Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, and Modern periods. The Chamber Choir performs at numerous on-campus and occasional off-campus concerts each year, as well as on periodic tours. Corequisite: Mus 293 or 294.

MUS 395 Harp 2
Prerequisite: Mus 295

MUS 396 Trombone 2
Prerequisite: Mus 296

MUS 397 Tuba/Euphonium 2
Prerequisite: Mus 297

MUS 400 Special Projects in Music 1
May be elected for additional individual work in music theory, analysis, music history, conducting, music recording or music technology. May be repeated.

MUS 409 Applied Teaching Internship 1 (1-3)
Designed to give students practical experience in music-related fields such as arts administration, music business, audio recording technology, church music and music therapy. Internships are individually arranged with the work supervisor and faculty adviser.

MUS 410 Senior Seminar 1
Weekly meetings of music majors and faculty to discuss vocational, curricular and ethical/spiritual topics.

Nursing courses

NURS 190 Strategies for Nursing Success 1
This course provides activities on ways to improve the student's overall academic and test performance. ATI and additional resources will be utilized for improvement in critical thinking and analyzing test questions. Students will develop strategies for managing test anxiety.

NURS 210 Intro to Professional Nursing 3
Selected nursing theories, nursing process and research will be studied as foundations for nursing practice. Emphasis will be on the nurse as a person and the importance of self-understanding, accountability, communication and helping relationships. The role of the professional nurse is studied in terms of an ever-changing health care delivery system and emerging nursing practice settings. Introduction to client as individual, family and community.

NURS 211 Fundamentals of Nursing 3
Students learn integral components of nursing care universal to all patients including asepsis, safety, hygiene, diagnostics, medication administration, wound care and perioperative care. Strategies for promoting physiological and psychosocial health are studied. Prerequisite: Nurs 210.

NURS 212 Holistic Client Assessment 3
Holistic client assessment focuses on collection of a database within the context of the nursing process. Content includes the health history and assessment of functional health patterns, body systems, growth and development, and cultural and spiritual dimensions. Clinical and laboratory experiences are included. Prerequisite: Nurs 210, Prerequisite or Concurrent: Nurs 211.

NURS 280 Intro to Health Care Statistics 4
This course is intended to introduce students to a conceptual understanding of statistical methods and research designs necessary for application in interpreting nursing research. Serves as a prerequisite to NURS 443: Nursing Research in the RN to BSN program.

NURS 290 NCLEX Success Strategies 1
This course includes activities and strategies in preparation for the NCLEX exam. The student will be completing several tutorials and practice exams from the ATI assessment series. A careful analysis of issues related to test taking abilities will be completed, along with review from ATI textbooks and other NCLEX preparation resources.

NURS 298 Global Health Focus: Nepal 3
The focus of this elective will be on health, illness, and wellness in Nepal. Possible activities include interaction with organizations helping with nutrition, prevention of human trafficking, acute healthcare, education of health workers, chronic and rehabilitation care, and empowerment of marginalized people. Application required.

NURS 305 Pharmacology 3
Focus is on examining the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drug classifications in the treatment of diseases. The nurse?s role in administering, monitoring for adverse and therapeutic effects, and patient education are discussed. Calculation of medication dosages will be required.

NURS 306 Nursing Care of Adults I 4
The nursing process is used with adults and families experiencing illness. Content areas include nursing care of adults with fluid and electrolyte and acid/base imbalances, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal problems, chronic neurological problems, urinary/genital conditions, and autoimmune disorders. Clinical experiences consist of providing holistic nursing care to adults in medical/surgical clinical areas, with emphasis on perioperative nursing. Prerequisite or Concurrent: Biol 319.

NURS 307 Nursing Care of Adults II 4
The nursing process is used with adults and families experiencing illness. Content areas include nursing care of adults with fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalances, cancer, lower respiratory problems, diabetes, and cardiovascular problems. Clinical experiences consist of providing holistic nursing care to adults in medical/surgical clinical areas. Prerequisite or Concurrent: Biol 319.

NURS 308 Gerontological Nursing 3
Examines health issues encountered during the final four decades of the life span, from active older adult through the end of life. Some specific pathophysiology as it relates to older adults is included. Students work with a well elder and visit community settings that provide services for older adults. Prerequisite: Nurs 212.

NURS 309 Healthcare Ethics 3
Students will actively reflect on ethical issues which are present in health care for practitioners and consumers. The focus will be on the process of ethical inquiry rather than decision outcomes. In the process of analyzing bioethical issues, student will be introduced to ethical theory and modes of ethical analysis informed by the Christian faith. Prerequisites: Open to third- and fourth-year students from all departments. A Peacemaking Perspectives course in the Goshen Core.

NURS 311 Nursing Care of Expanding Family 3
The nursing process and knowledge of normal and selected abnormal conditions experienced during the childbearing cycle are addressed. Selected normal, and deviations to, general women's health issues are also discussed. Clinical experiences occur with the family in the community and hospital. Prerequisite: Nurs 212, Biol 319. Concurrent: Nurs 305.

NURS 312 Nursing Care of the Child 3
The focus is on common conditions and illnesses of children. The clinical focuses of the nursing care of the ill child. Developmental concepts, health promotion and prevention are emphasized in clinical and theory. Prerequisite: Nurs 212, Biol 319. Concurrent: Nurs 305.

NURS 331 Philosophy & Theories of Nursing 4
Bridge course that prepares adult learners for upper-level college study. The metaparadigm of nursing is utilized as the organizing framework for exploration of self and nursing. The evolution of nursing science, theory, research and practice are studied. Caring is discussed as a central ethic of nursing practice.

NURS 332 Holistic Client Assessment 4
Builds on prior learning, expanding history taking and physical assessment of functional health patterns, body systems, growth and development, and cultural and spiritual dimensions.

NURS 403 Nursing Research 3
Basic concepts of nursing research are examined. Focuses on critical analysis and summary of published nursing research as a basis for using research in clinical practice. Understands the linkages between nursing practice, research evidence and patient outcomes. A major project is developed related to nursing research utilization. Prerequisite: Six credit hours of 300-level clinical nursing courses.

NURS 405 Psychiatric/Mental-Health Nursing 3
A study of psychiatric/mental-health nursing practice. The clinical component provides opportunities in a psychiatric hospital and community mental-health settings. The role of the nurse as a member of the mental-health team is emphasized. Prerequisites: All 300-level clinical nursing courses.

NURS 406 Acute-Care Nursing 3
Focuses on the application of the nursing process to the care of acutely ill adults. Content areas concentrate on acute conditions involving the cardiovascular, respiratory, neurological, and renal systems, trauma, and burns. Application of nursing care occurs in a variety of critical care settings. Prerequisites: All 300-level clinical nursing courses.

NURS 408 Community Health Nursing 3
Applies a synthesis of nursing, social, and public health theories to the assessment and care of aggregates in the community. Practice is collaborative with a focus on promoting and protecting the health of populations. Community health planning for aggregates or populations is done using a variety of agencies and resources in the community. The public health delivery system is differentiated from the private health care delivery system in its emphasis on social justice. Prerequisites: All 300-level clinical nursing courses.

NURS 409 Leadership in Nursing 3
Content includes management and leadership theories, as well as knowledge of complex organizational systems. An emphasis is placed on the role of the nursing leader as creator and manager of a culture of caring, safety, and quality. The clinical experience includes management of care for multiple clients and clinical experiences that relate to quality improvement. Prerequisites: All 300-level clinical nursing courses.

NURS 410 Nursing Senior Seminar 1
The main focus is on integration of current professional practice issues in professional practice and the role of the BSN prepared nurse to impact change in the profession and health care arena. Portfolio and resume preparation are included. Prerequistie: Nurs 403.

NURS 415 Capstone 3
Content includes application and review of nursing concepts in preparation for the licensure examination (NCLEX). Transition to practice issues are also discussed. A strategy for securing a nursing practice position is developed. Prerequisite: Nurs 403.

NURS 433 Research in Nursing 4
A survey of nursing research practice and method. Critical analysis of published nursing research as a basis for implementing research in clinical practice.

NURS 438 Community Health Nursing 5
Applies a synthesis of nursing, social, and public health theories to the assessment and care of aggregates in the community. Practice is collaborative with a focus on promoting and protecting the health of populations. Community health planning for aggregates or populations is done using a variety of agencies and resources in the community. The public health delivery system is differentiated from the private health care delivery system in its emphasis on social justice.

NURS 449 Leadership in Nursing 5
Leadership and management principles are applied to clinical practice. An emphasis is placed on the role of the nurse leader as creator and manager of a culture of caring, safety and quality. Includes content and discussion on current nursing issues. Clinical practice component of course will be arranged with each student.

Organizational Leadership courses

OLP 309 Leading & Serving Multicultural Wld 3
The modern workforce is rapidly becoming a mosaic of colors, languages, cultural traditions and values. This demographic reality poses an immense challenge for both workforce and leaders. The goal of this course is to better understand different cultural values and styles, to recognize one's own biases and assumptions and to value diversity.

Philosophy courses

PHIL 200 Introduction to Philosophy 3
An introduction to the major problems of philosophy such as the nature of information, knowledge, truth and reality, the relation of faith and reason, ethical and moral reasoning, politics and aesthetics. Discussion of the problems is driven by self-examination of each student's reasoned ideas and the contributions of major philosophers from a variety of traditions and cultures.

PHIL 202 Philosophy, Wonder and Existence 3
A recurring issue in philosophy is the relationship between the body and the soul. One approach to this perplexing problem is to synthesize and integrate these two features of human existence, contending that we are fundamentally material beings or most essentially spiritual beings. This course asks students to confront the body/soul integrative question (or mind-body synthesis) through the careful reading of seminal texts in philosophy, psychology, theology, and literature. Critiquing what Blaise Pascal and Soren Kierkegaard describe as a culture of distraction that avoids metaphysical questions. Course readings and assignments invite students to existentially confront and personally engage with central philosophical questions. While interdisciplinary in nature, this course serves as a primary introduction to the field of philosophy through the lens of a salient and enduring issue. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

PHIL 203 Living Ethically 3
Living Ethically will focus on ethical decision-making as well as ethical being, drawing on historical and contemporary forms and structures in ethics as well as contemporary applications of ethical frameworks. Students will be encouraged to identify the bases for their own ethical processes and discern whether there is a distinctively Christian/religious way of living ethically, and if so, what the distinguishing characteristics of such living might be. Moral reasoning and character-formation will be addressed as well as both personal and social ethics. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

PHIL 204 Environmental Ethics 3
This course will focus on ethical decision-making as well as ethical being, drawing on both ancient and contemporary applications of ethical frameworks. Students will bring their own ethical issues into the course and help shape its basic trajectories. The course will also address questions of vocation/calling, from a religious perspective, and how that notion is related to ethical being. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

PHIL 302 Ethics and Morality 3
A study of the nature of moral claims and the bases for ethical principles.The course draws on both moral philosophy and on Christian ethical reflection, addressing the development of character as well as the patterns and methods for both individual and corporate decision-making.

PHIL 307 Asian Thought 3
The main aim of this course is to introduce the student to the questions, methods, goals and character of Asian philosophies and to instill in him or her a sensitivity to the profundity of thought that informs Asian history and culture.

PHIL 310 Topics in Philosophy 3
Study in specific areas of philosophic thought such as ancient/medieval, logic, modern philosophy, theory of knowledge, theory and problems of reality.

PHIL 400 Individual Readings in Philosophy 3 (1-3)
Students take initiative to develop a plan with a department faculty member. By consent of the faculty member only.

Physics courses

PHYS 105 Physics & Engineering 2
An introduction to the department and to physics and engineering as careers. Presentations by faculty and students of research, introduction to the scientific literature and scientific writing, individual research on a chosen topic.

PHYS 154 Descriptive Astronomy 3
An introduction to astronomy, with emphasis on basic sky patterns and their historical explanations. Considers the Copernican revolution, simple Newtonian physics, and contemporary understandings of stars, galaxies and cosmology. Includes a field trip to a Planetarium and (weather permitting) an overnight observing trip to Merry Lea. Taught in May term. A Natural World course in the Goshen Core. Pre or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy.

PHYS 203 General Physics 4
A calculus and vector treatment of basic physics. This is the first semester, which includes mechanics of motion, vibration and sound. Required of physics majors. Prerequisite or Concurrent: Math 211.

PHYS 204 General Physics 4
A calculus and vector treatment of basic physics. This is the second semester, which includes electric and magnetic fields, light and optics. Required of physics majors. Prerequisites: Math 211, Phys 203.

PHYS 208 Introduction to Research 2
An introduction to the techniques and practice of experimental research. Students participate in laboratory work in the Turner Laboratory. Course is considered training for future research in the physics department. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204 or consent of instructor.

PHYS 210 Modern Physics 3
An introduction to the basis of modern physics. Special relativity, experimental origins of the quantum theory, nuclear physics, condensed matter physics, elementary particle physics, and cosmology. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204 or consent of instructor.

PHYS 215 Climate Change 3
How can and should humans relate to nature? This question raises vigorous, passionate, and political discussion. Using an interdisciplinary approach, students explore (a) how information is generated, refined, and debated in scientific disciplines, (b) how science, archaeology and other disciplines shed light on Earth's climate beyond the horizon of a few generations' experience, and (c) how past cultures reacted to environmental challenges. The class includes laboratory activities, but within the constraints of a 3 credit hour course. Required for elementary education majors. A Natural World course in the Goshen Core. Pre- or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy.

PHYS 220 Engineering Statics 3
A basic engineering course studying static equilibrium. Vector algebra, free-body diagrams and static equilibrium of moments and forces are used to solve problems in two and three dimensions. Topics include methods of solving frames, trusses and machines, distributed forces, determination of centroids, fluid statics, applications of friction, and virtual work. Prerequisite: Phys 203 of consent of instructor.

PHYS 222 Mechanics of Materials 3
A study of stress and strain analysis in engineering materials. Topics will include axial, torsional, bending and shear loads, stress and strain transformations, design and deflection of beams and shafts, buckling and energy methods. Prerequisite: PHYS 220 or consent of instructor.

PHYS 240 Physics of Music 3
A study of the physics of a variety of musical instruments including the voice, the physical origins of musical scales and temperaments, perception effects in the ear and brain and room acoustics. Many class sessions will be laboratory experiences and each student will do a major project. Prerequisite: Phys 203 or high school physics, Mus 102 or equivalent ability or consent of instructor.

PHYS 302 Analytical Mechanics 3
Newtonian Mechanics based on the formulation of Lagrange and Hamilton. Applications to oscillations, orbital motion, scattering, rigid body motion. Special topics include chaos theory and relativity. Prerequisites: Phys 203, 204, Math 211, 212, or consent of instructor.

PHYS 303 Classical Field Theory 3
Study of electric and magnetic fields using the formulation of Maxwell. Maxwell's equations are developed with reference to experiments followed by selected applications including wave propagation in dispersive media, and magnetic and dielectric phenomena. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204, Math 211, 213, or consent of instructor.

PHYS 304 Electronics 4
Introduction to analog and digital electronics and robotics. The focus is on design and construction of practical circuitry which can be used to build useful devices. After the analog and digital groundwork is laid, students learn to program microcontrollers to interface with a variety of sensors and outputs on mobile robotic platforms. Weekly laboratories culminate in individual projects presented in the biannual electronics show. Lectures and laboratory. Prerequisite: high school physics.

PHYS 305 Optics and Holography 4
Electromagnetic theory, geometrical optics, interference and diffraction, and other principles provide the framework for understanding a variety of optical instruments and experiments. Laboratories include various types of interferometry, laser beam filtering and profiling, several types of holography and culminate in individual projects. Lectures and laboratory. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204.

PHYS 310 Thermodynamics 4
A study of classical thermodynamics including thermodynamic and chemical potentials, kinetic theory of gases, and chemical kinetics. An introduction to statistical mechanics is presented. Applications include studies of material properties and engineering systems. Includes a laboratory. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204; Chem 111-112; Math 211 and 213 or consent of instructor.

PHYS 312 Quantum Mechanics 4
Principles of quantum mechanics are discussed beginning with a hydrogen atom and concluding with many atom molecules. The material is examined using the physical evidences that support the theory of quantum mechanics, particularly spectroscopy. The course also discusses symmetry of molecules, theory of NMR and X-ray diffraction. Lectures and laboratory. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204; Chem 111-112; Math 212 or consent of instructor.

PHYS 313 QuantumTheory 3
A study of the quantum theory in the vector formalism of Dirac, Schroedinger and Heisenberg representations are considered. Applications to scattering, atomic physics and magnetism. Prerequisites: Phys 203-204, Math 213 or consent of instructor.

PHYS 314 Statistical Mechanics 3
A study of the statistical treatment of particles including molecules, atoms and electrons. The ensemble theory of Gibbs is developed as the basis. Applications include gases, crystalline solids, magnetic materials and phase transitions. Prerequisite: Math 213 or consent of instructor.

PHYS 410 Senior Seminar 3
An exploration of the relations between the natural sciences and other broad areas with special emphasis on ethical and theological concerns. Discussion, preparation and presentation of papers in a student-led seminar. Prerequisite: Senior standing.

PHYS 421 Advanced Topics in Physics 2 (1-3)
Special topics selected by the student in consultation with professor. These may include topics of special interest to the student or research. Academic credit for research or thesis is covered by enrolling in this subject.

Peace, justice & conflict studies courses

PJCS 201 Violence and Nonviolence 3
This course addresses the questions, when and why are people violent, and when and why are they peaceful? How does nonviolence address the destructive force of violence and stand as an alternative? A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core.

PJCS 202 Spiritual Path of Peacemaking 3
How do peacemakers sustain their work for peace and justice over a lifetime without burning out? This course examines spiritual paths of peacemakers: theories, teachings and practices for sustaining active nonviolence and peacemaking. A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core.

PJCS 203 Authentic Mission 3
While fully recognizing both abuses committed in the history of Christian mission and the ongoing challenges of working well across cultures, this course will tease out what it means to translate the Christian gospel into different cultural settings in an authentic, sensitive, culture-affirming way. A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core.

PJCS 204 Vengeance and Forgiveness 3
This course will help students appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of vengeance and forgiveness, their internal contradictions and their sometimes surprising shared qualities, as both seek to provide victims with a way to move beyond the domain of insult, injury, and injustice toward wholeness. A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core.

PJCS 209 Field Experience 1 (1-4)
An approved, supervised internship related to peace, justice and conflict studies work.

PJCS 210 Transforming Conflict and Violence 3
Explores the potentially constructive nature of conflict, the destructive nature of violence and the relationship between the two. Examines various patterns of communication, conflict and violence and what is needed for transformation. Students will reflect on their own conflict styles, build their skills for peacemaking and examine their personal temptations for violence. Note: Because PJCS 210 introduces concepts developed in greater depth in PJCS 325, this course may not be taken concurrently with or following PJCS 325. A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core.

PJCS 220 Inside Out: 3
An interactive course which addresses justice from the viewpoints of those both inside and outside the criminal justice system. Half of students in each class are inmates in a correctional facility and half are college students. The course is flexible in its specific content, shaped by the expertise of instructors. Recent offerings have been "Justice in Our Lives," focused on restorative justice and conflict transformation and "Borders, Boundaries and Bridges," focused on divisive issues such as immigration through the lens of theater. Special application required to enroll.

PJCS 309 Advocacy Fieldwork 1
Advocacy Field Work includes the application of policy and advocacy skills outside the classroom and thus must be taken in conjunction with one of the following Topics courses: SoWk 315, SoWk 320, SoWk 345 or SoWk 350. The requirements include: 1) the completion of a 40 hour internship with a community partner focused on advocacy and policy skill development; and 2) the completion of a culminating project focused on an advocacy or policy project determined by the student, minor advisor, and agency supervisor at the beginning of the placement.

PJCS 310 Issues in PJCS 3
Contemporary issues, e.g., militarism, organizational power relationships and conflict transformation, nuclear weaponry, economic sanctions, domestic violence.

PJCS 311 Junior Seminar 3
Junior Seminar has three main purposes: to explore classic and contemporary issues in conflict and peace through faculty- and student-led seminars to develop research and writing skills appropriate for PJCS; and to begin work toward a major research project to be completed in Senior Seminar.

PJCS 325 Mediation:Process, Skills, Theory 4 (3-4)
Focuses on the third party role of the mediator. Explores the theoretical basis for mediation, its various applications in North America, and critiques of the appropriateness of mediation for certain types of conflicts. Emphasis will be on experiential learning to develop the skills needed for mediation in formal and informal settings. PJCS majors and minors, as well as Interdisciplinary majors with a PJCS component, will complete one hour of applied experience.

PJCS 332 Religion, Conflict and Peace 3
Examines the role of religion in causing and nurturing violence and in promoting peace themes which have emerged as central to the pursuit of peace in the 21st century.

PJCS 347 Restorative Justice 3
Begins with an account of some of the classic and mainstream understandings of justice and then moves on to an overview of the foundational principles of restorative justice and its various practical applications. The course will examine and address the needs of victims, offenders, communities and broader systems. It will specifically examine the Victim Offender Reconciliation (VORP) model and its role in the North American criminal justice system. It will also examine models from other contexts such as family group conferences and circles.

PJCS 350 Dynamics/Theology of Reconciliation 3
An interdisciplinary examination of the work of reconciliation in interpersonal and small group relationships, but especially in large-scale social and political contexts.

PJCS 360 Designing for Social Change 3
Analyzes different strategies for achieving change in contexts characterized by high levels of complexity and conflict, with particular attention to the role and significance of the relatively new field of dialogue, deliberation, and civic engagement. Students will draw from their own experiences as well as change initiatives from other parts of the world in order to surface the set of assumptions they hold about how constructive change happens.

PJCS 370 Personal Violence and Healing 3
A seminar course in which advanced students examine encounters with violence and how healing can be sought. Integrating religious and ethical studies with the social sciences, the course focuses on the socio-cultural matrix of an individual's encounters with violence.

PJCS 409 Senior Internship 3 (1-4)
An approved internship or work experience related to peace, justice, and conflict studies. Examples include supervised activities in shelters for the homeless, work with local, regional, national or international peace, justice and conflict transformation agencies and organizations or work with congregational and denominational peace centers.

PJCS 410 Senior Advanced Work 1
A written project in which seniors with a Peace and Justice minor or a Conflict Transformation minor reflect on the relationship between their academic major and what they learned in their PJCS courses.

PJCS 411 Senior Seminar 3
Students will complete a major research project on a topic of their choosing, leading to a 25-35 page thesis.

PJCS 425 War and Peace in the Modern World 3
Working primarily from an international relations perspective, this course wlll examine changing patterns of fighting wars and seeking peace.

PJCS 426 Conflict-Healthy Groups 3
Using a systems approach, students will explore conflicts in organizations and communities, locating and examining models for assessment, diagnosis, intervention and evaluation. Working with case studies and real life situations of structural injustice and conflict, students will learn practical strategies for dialogue, problem-solving, healing, reconciliation and system change. Prerequisite: PJCS 325.

PJCS 437 Disparities in Health Care 4
This course examines disparities in health care along lines of race, culture and gender. Social justice is identified as a core nursing value and a foundation of public health nursing. Health, illness and various health care issues are explored in communities that have experienced discrimination and marginalization, resulting in reduced access to and disparities in health care.

Political science courses

POSC 200 Introduction to Political Science 3
General comparative survey of political institutions and behavior in various types of regimes, with special emphasis on the American political system. The most appropriate course for students required to take one course in political science. Collateral reading may be adjusted to individual needs and interests.

POSC 210 Introduction to Public Policy 3
Explores the nature of the policy-making process in the United States and, to a lesser extent, other pluralist polities. Topics will include constitutional and structural framework in which policies are shaped, interest articulation, policy formulation and the feedback process.

POSC 305 US Constitutional Law 3
A basic introduction to the federal system of government in the United States based on the US Constitution. Focus on the constitutional arrangements established at the nation's founding, critical points in the constitution's evolution and the contemporary setting. Topics may include the legislative process, the judiciary branch and the nature of the presidency. The regulatory process, interest groups, political parties, the press, campaigning and voter behavior, civil rights and federal-state relations may also be examined.

POSC 308 International Politics 3
Examination of the structure, development and operation of the present international political system and its possible alternatives.

POSC 320 Issues in Politics and Society 3
Contemporary (and often controversial) political issues in the U.S. and Latin America, e.g. African-Americans and the U.S. judicial system; educating legal professionals; the church and Latin American politics. Analysis through class discussions, some lectures by the instructor, student papers and contribution from resource persons with involvement in the subject matter.

POSC 425 War and Peace in the Modern World 3
(Cross-listed from PJCS 425) Working primarily from an international relations perspective, this course willl examine changing patterns of fighting wars and seeking peace.

Psychology courses

PSYC 100 General Psychology 3
An introduction to the methods, concepts and principles used in the study of behavior. Includes a survey of topics in psychological development, individual differences, memory, personality structure, mental health, learning and social psychology.

PSYC 200 Social Psychology 3
A study of the influence of society on the individual and of the individual on society. Involves the study of person-to-person transactions, with emphasis on attitudes and small group structure and process. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 201 Heroic Acts and Heinous Crimes 3
Why do some people give their lives for another while others kill with little thought? Are the causes internal (personality, psychopathology, spiritual) or external (social standing, socioeconomic status, injustice)? Is it nature or nurture? This course will survey research in social psychology, examine philosophical issues of morality, and explore faith issues related to biblical passages. A Social World course in the Goshen Core. Pre or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 210 Developmental Psychology 3
A study of developmental processes across the life span. Physical, social and cognitive changes provide the basic organization for this course. A variety of developmental theories will be examined including Piaget, Vygotsky, Erickson, social learning and psychodynamic. Current research and an understanding of how to think about developmental processes will be emphasized. A Social World course in the Goshen Core. Prerequisite: Psyc 100 preferred. Pre- or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy.

PSYC 217 Cross-Cultural Psychology 3
A study of both the influences of culture on human behavior as well as universal characteristics all individuals share regardless of culture. This course seeks to examine how an individual's cultural background influences behavior and thoughts and relationships. Biological, sociocultural, ecological and psychological perspectives will be examined. A Social World course in the Goshen Core. Pre- or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 218 Theories Counseling & Pyschotherapy 3
A study of the primary theories of counseling/psychotherapy and the contemporary issues that have changed the field. Significant emphasis will be placed on understanding the research on efficacy/effectiveness and exploring the current realities of delivering psychotherapy. Specific techniques will also be examined. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 302 Research Methods in Psychology 4
A study of the methods and techniques used in psychological research. Course will include the examination of methods such as description, survey, correlation, quasi-experiments, and true experiments. Prerequisite: Psyc 100. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 303 Biological Psychology 4
An introduction to the physiology and anatomy of the brain and central nervous system and their effects on psychological functioning (behavior, thinking, and feeling) processes. Three lectures, one 2-hour lab. Prerequisite: Psyc 100. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 306 Abnormal Psychology 3
A study of the variety of psychological disorders as classified by the DSM system. Issues related to classification will be discussed. A biopsychosocial model will be assumed when discussing etiology and treatment. Since this is primarily a descriptive course, considerable emphasis will be placed on case studies. At the conclusion of the course, students will be well versed in understanding the major psychological disorders. Prerequisite: Psyc 100.

PSYC 308 Personality Theory 3
A study of theory development with particular focus on major personality theories. The central concepts of each theory, the unique place in contemporary psychological thought and relationship of theory to psychological experimentation and research will be emphasized. Prerequisite: Psyc 100. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 309 Educational Psychology:Secondary 3
(Cross-listed from Educ 309) A study of physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, linguistic, moral and identity development birth through adolescence. Includes developmental theories, influence of cultural and social factors on development and school influences on children and adolescents.

PSYC 310 Educational Psychology:Elementary 3
(Cross-listed from Educ 310) A study of physical, cognitive, psychosocial, emotional, linguistic, moral and identity development birth through adolescence. Includes developmental theories, influence of cultural and social factors on development and school influences on children and adolescents.

PSYC 316 Introduction to Clinical Psychology 3
A study of the major issues facing someone entering the professional world of delivering psychological services to others. Critical thinking about the most recent diagnosis and treatment modalities will be emphasized. Other topics include ethics, psychopharmacology, counseling, health psychology, psychobiology and community psychology. Prerequisite: Psyc 100. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 319 Cognitive Psychology 3
A study of how people understand and interpret the world. Primary topics include learning, memory, decision-making, sensation/perception, and intelligence. Prerequisite: Psyc 100. Offered every other year.

PSYC 320 Psychological Assessment 3
A study of psychological testing theory, test administration and test interpretation. The course will survey intellectual, aptitude, achievement, interest, personality and neurological assessment. Students will be given direct experience with tests from each of these categories. Prerequisite: Psyc 100. Course is offered every two or three years.

PSYC 375 Topics: 3 (1-3)
Study in a major area of psychology not covered by regular courses.

PSYC 380 Statistics in Research 3
A study of data analysis and its relationship to research methods in a variety of settings. Collection, presentation and analysis of numerical data, including descriptive, parametric, and nonparametric statistics. Students are strongly encouraged to complete the Quantitative Literacy requirement in the Goshen Core before taking this course. When this course is taught for four credit hours in the adult degree completion program, it includes application and integration of concepts applied to nursing research.

PSYC 400 Advanced Projects in Psychology 1 (1-3)
Independent reading or research for psychology majors. Requires extensive reading or research on a topic of the student's choice. Consultation with instructor required.

PSYC 401 Psychology Research I 1
In a small group collaboration, students design, propose, and prepare to conduct a research study. Special attention is given to Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (HSIRB) Requirements. Prerequisite/corequisite: Psyc 380.

PSYC 403 Psychology Research II 3
Further data collection and analysis of the problem studied in Psyc 401, culminating in a written thesis and oral presentation. Prerequisite: Psyc 380, 401.

PSYC 409 Senior Internship 2
Internship offers opportunity to observe and participate in a supervised field learning experience in which psychological theories and concepts are employed and issues pertaining to psychology as a career can be addressed. Prerequisites: minimum of 12 hours of upper-level psychology or consent of instructor. Course is offered every other year.

PSYC 410 Senior Seminar in Psychology 2
A focus on integrative issues concerning psychology, science and faith, primarily Christianity. Attention will also be given to philosophical reasoning. This student-led seminar is structured around student-selected topics such as free will, prayer, religion and mental health/illness, therapy and faith, forgiveness, happiness/sin, etc. Prerequisites: minimum of 12 hours of upper-level psychology or consent of instructor. Course is offered every other year.

Religion courses

REL 203 Jesus at the Movies 3
How does retelling the story of Jesus in film either enhance or diminish our understanding of the gospel stories? Students will become literate in filmmaking techniques as well as narrative and dialogue and will evaluate the artistic and theological value of a selection of films. We will examine a range of Jesus films and also some Christ films (in which the main character is a self-sacrificing redeemer) and second coming films. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

REL 205 Religion in America 3
Given competing truth claims, how do we learn to appreciate religious diversity, open ourselves to new learning, and yet remain relatively grounded in faith? This course examines historical and contemporary religious life in the USA, with attention to conflicts that have arisen from the first European explorers to the present day. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

REL 206 Religion and Sports 3
This course explores the profound and ubiquitous interweaving of religion and sports in Western civilization. From its roots in classical Olympian festivals to its emergence as a multi-billion dollar modern industry, the active presence of religious themes in sports, from spiritual ordeal, to the ethos of fairness, to the manifestation of moral reward in victory, will be tracked and analyzed. Particular attention will be devoted to the ways in which sport interacts with Christianity in North America, both in the quasi-amateur context of intercollegiate athletics as well as the professional ranks of league franchises. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

REL 207 Religion and Politics 3
How does religion function as a force for transformation and change in society, or a source of stability? And how does the political world feed back into the world of faith? This course examines the impact of religious beliefs, religious practices, and religious communities on the broader world of politics: governance, social issues, and the organization of the polis. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

REL 209 Field Experience 3 (1-3)
A field placement in applied ministry or discipleship at a camp, retreat center, congregation or religious organization. Appropriate for credit by experience registration.

REL 220 Introduction to World Religions 3
This survey will focus on a particular theme or area of religious experience as a window into the world's major religious traditions. Possible themes include: death, the human condition, or worship and ritual. This course is designed to provide students with a basis for more advanced study of particular traditions or a place to begin making sense of religious diversity or different expressions of spirituality when they encounter them.

REL 225 Spiritual Formation 1
Various topical courses based on student and faculty interest aimed to foster spiritual growth among students for general life application or ministry skill development. Course examples include Prayer Disciplines, Wrestling with the Biblical Text, Leading Small Groups, Preaching, and Preparation for Inquiry (a strong recommendation for participation in Camping, Ministry and Service Inquiry Programs).

REL 286 Creation & Evolution 3
This course uses a case study methodology in which complex problems are addressed and discussed in an interdisciplinary framework on a weekly basis. Various approaches to creation theology are explored, and avenues of productive engagement are sought between religion and science. Particular attention will be devoted to the problem of human nature from theological and evolutionary perspectives. Students develop and present their own case studies, learning to formulate complex problems in an interdisciplinary way. Alongside the more conventional work of reading, writing and interdisciplinary discussion, class members participate actively in the annual Goshen Science and Religion Conference.

REL 309 Enduring Iss: Christian Perspective 3
Examines the biblical heritage and major doctrines of Christian faith. Explores basic issues such as individualism and community, personal decision-making, social justice, and relating to other religious traditions. Class members will be challenged to think through their own responses to these issues. Available only in adult studies programs.

REL 310 Topics: 3
Lectures, research and discussion of specific topics in religion such as politics and religion, spirituality, religion and the media.

REL 315 Religion in Culture & Society 3
(Cross-listed from Soc 315) An analysis of the social, cultural and political contexts that profoundly affect religious institutions and expressions, and upon which religion has an influence. Course includes such topics as meaning and belonging, modern individualism, dynamics of religious collectives and the impact of religion on social change.

REL 316 Liberation Theologies 3
Focuses on three contemporary theologies of liberation (Latin American Liberation Theology, Black Theologies and Feminist Theologies) as they are developing in the Americas. The course examines similarities and differences among these three theologies - in conversation with Womanist and Latina theologies - as each addresses specific theological questions raised by the people of God in historical and contemporary situations of exploration and oppression. The course also has a praxis component.

REL 317 Islam 3
An introduction to Islamic religion, culture and civilization. An historical survey will introduce the origins and early development of Islam, its rapid spread and flourishing and its interactions with the Western world. A thorough understanding of the core religious beliefs of Islam will be emphasized, through the examination of primary and secondary texts, rich media resources, guest speakers, and a field trip to a local mosque, with an opportunity to speak with the imam and other members of the community. Some of the contemporary issues facing Muslims around the world and in North America will be discussed.

REL 318 Anabaptist/Mennonite History 3
(Cross-listed from Hist 318) Introduction to Mennonite history and thought. About one-third of the course is devoted to Anabaptism. Special attention given to distinctive Anabaptist religious ideas, changes in Mennonite religious ideas and practice in Europe, migrations, contrasts in social-communal practices among Mennonites and related groups.

REL 320 Christian Theologies 3
A thorough introduction to theology, examining Christianity's basic theological features and themes (e.g. human nature, Christology, atonement, the nature of the church, eschatology). An excellent course for those committed to Christian faith as well as skeptics and those along faith's margins. Careful attention will be paid to both historical development of theology as well as contemporary credibility. Prerequisite: CORE 120 or consent of instructor.

REL 321 History of Mennonites in America 3
(Cross-listed from Hist 321) Emphasis on Mennonites as a people developing and interacting with the larger American society, using themes such as migration, community formation, beliefs, acculturation and pacifist citizenship in war and peace.

REL 322 Worshiping Communities 3
An introduction to the forms, styles, and history of Christian worship. Content includes a survey of the liturgical year and the major traditions of Christian spirituality. In addition, students will reflect on themes ranging from public and private forms of worship to the aesthetics of worship spaces. Students will also have the opportunity to actively reflect on how social realities and political concerns can be resources for discipleship, spiritual growth, and corporate worship.

REL 323 Judaism 3
An introduction to the essential beliefs, texts and religious practices of Judaism. The course will survey biblical and talmudic foundations, sketch historical development in Jewish life, thought and religion, and explore Jewish identity. Central concepts such as God, Law and Israel will illuminate the customs, rituals and values of contemporary Judaism. The class will visit a local synagogue and engage in conversation with the rabbi and members of the Jewish community. Special attention will be devoted to an appreciation of the deep continuities that exist among the "peoples of the book" as well as recognition of the unique contributions each has made to contemporary world culture.

REL 328 Spiritual Writings of Women 3
A survey of women's writings about the spiritual journey. Includes a range of medieval through 20th-century women. Examines women's use of their experiences as one source of theologizing.

REL 330 Religion and Sexuality 3
An exploration of the meaning and purpose of human sexuality in the context of Christian (and other) religious faith(s) and in relation to culturally based attitudes. Topics addressed will include body phenomenology, body theology, gender issues, historical developments, sexuality and spirituality, singleness, marriage, friendship, sexual violence, and a variety of other theological, ethical and relational issues. The course draws extensively on feminist models, themes and authors. Intended for 2nd year students and above. A Religious World course in the Goshen Core.

REL 374 Congregational Ministries 3
This pre-seminary course will introduce students to the basic contours of Christian congregational ministries: public ministry (preaching, worship leading, etc.), pastoral care, church administration, and service in the broader community. Attention also will be paid to leaders' own spiritual development, the power of pastoral ministry and its attendant risks, the dangers of transference and counter-transference in counseling relationships, and the sociological dynamics and functions of religious institutions. Designed for those considering active involvement in pastoral ministries.

REL 380 Art & Faith in Life & Work 4
This course draws on the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, church history, Christian theology and ethics to explore issues of basic importance to today's working professionals. These issues will be considered through the lenses of the arts in an interdisciplinary dialogue that seeks to develop competency in both literary and visual arts. The historical relationship between religion and the arts will be explored. Meanings encoded in the arts will be unraveled through an investigative and analytic approach that helps students to "read" a wide variety of art forms. Students will be challenged to think through their own responses to perennial issues to answer the question: What are my essential beliefs and values, and how do these shape the way I live and work? Taught in adult degree completion programs.

REL 402 Christianity & Modern Thought 3
(Cross-listed from Rel 410) A seminar examining and assessing narrative theology and ethics. An attempt to state faith in meaningful terms by understanding the principles and structures of narrative and habitually using them. This course also serves as the senior seminar for Bible and religion majors, and only seniors are allowed in the course. Participation for non-Bible and religion majors requires the consent of the professor.

REL 405 Spiritual Care and Healing 3
Especially oriented towards the professional caregiver, this course emphasizes the interaction of spiritual factors with physical and emotional ones in the lives of helpers and their clients. Course enrollment includes a commitment to regularly practice one of the classical spiritual disciplines as a source of spiritual renewal and healing.

REL 409 Religion Internship 3 (1-3)
Approved intern or work experience related to studies in religion. Examples are Ministry Inquiry Program, supervised work in campus ministries, church agencies, chaplaincy or congregational programs.

REL 410 Religion Senior Seminar 3
Advanced work in principles and problems of religious studies through the examination and assessment of narrative theology and ethics. Constant attention is given to meaningful articulation of faith. (See Rel 402, Christianity and Modern Thought).

REL 411 Senior Thesis 3
This course will meet as a regularly scheduled course. Students will develop a research project based upon material with which they have worked in an earlier Bible or Religion course. One professor will supervise all the students registered in the course. Assistance may be solicited from other professors with more expertise in an area. Students will work at an advanced level using principles and methods of research and situate their work within the context of the story of Religion and Christian faith. Students will polish their composition and oral presentation skills.

Sociology courses

SOC 200 Principles of Sociology 3
An introduction to the principles and methods used in the study of human society. Includes a survey of topics in social problems, social inequalities, social identity, human ecology and social change.

SOC 201 Good Eating 3
How are human eating practices connected to ethical beliefs, economic behavior, and habitat? This course explores both the natural and social histories of foods and diets and the ways that our food choices connect us to multiple systems of life. A Social World course in the Goshen Core. Pre- or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy.

SOC 205 Introduction to Gender Studies 3
(Cross-listed from WGS 200) Introduction to major areas of feminist thought (historical and contemporary) that shaped the field of Women's Studies. Course objectives focus on increasing students' understandings of the social systemic factors (i.e., sociological factors) that influence women's lived experience. Readings, small group discussions, and service learning/activism projects enable students to apply feminist theory concerning women and gender in an interdisciplinary context. This course serves as an introductory survey course for the women and gender Studies minor and a topical exploration for sociology.

SOC 209 Field Experience in Soc/Anthro 3 (1-3)
Offers first and second-year students opportunity to gain first-hand experience in settings where sociological or anthropological perspectives and skills are put to work. Arrangements for field experience are made at initiative of the student in consultation with a faculty adviser and a supervisor at the field-experience location. Forty hours of field experience will be expected for each hour of credit earned. Prerequisite: Soc 200.

SOC 210 Sociology of the Family 3
A study of the role of family in society and culture. Includes a comparative history of the family institution as well as an examination of social trends affecting mate selection, marriage, family roles and family relationships in contemporary society and culture.

SOC 230 Ethnography and Culture 3
An introduction to ethnographic methods and cultural analysis. The course will operate on two interrelated dimensions, one focused on the history of ethnography and cultural analysis in anthropology and sociology, the other focused on practical techniques of qualitative research, including specific skills in qualitative research design, methods, and data analysis. The course includes an ethnographic research project.

SOC 238 Social Change: Sociological Perspec 3
An introduction to sociological theory and research on social change. We explore models and interpretations of social change at the macro level through historical narratives of modernization, development, and globalization and at the meso level through case studies of social movements and political reform movements. A Social World course in the Goshen Core.

SOC 260 Human Sexuality 3
Biological, psychological and sociological factors determining sex-role identification and role performance; human reproduction, fertility control and sexual disorders; social and spiritual values in human sexuality; sex discrimination and movements toward sex equality.

SOC 302 Urban Diversity 3
Student is exposed to issues affecting the lives of an ethnically and religiously diverse urban populace - racism, sexism, classism - and helped to develop new ways of conceptualizing and interpreting the contemporary urban scene. Reading, research and writing are integrated with the student's first-hand involvement in issues under study. Available only through the Chicago Center or WCSC in Washington, D.C.

SOC 310 Social Theory 3
A comparative study of prominent social theorists of the past 200 years with specific attention to their interpretations of social changes related to modernity, globalization, and identity. Includes an examination of the purpose of social theory particularly as it relates to sociological inquiry. Prerequisite: Soc 200 or consent of instructor. Taught in a distance education format as part of the Sociology Collaborative.

SOC 315 Religion in Culture and Society 3
An analysis of the social, cultural and political contexts that profoundly affect religious institutions and expressions, and upon which religion has an influence. Course includes such topics as meaning and belonging, modern individualism, dynamics of religious collectives and the impact of religion on social change.

SOC 320 Environmental Sociology 3
A survey of environmental sociology including theories of human-environment interaction, a history of various environmental movements and other developments with significant ecological implications, cross cultural comparisons of human-environment relations, and questions of justice with relation to who decides about resource use and who suffers the effects of environmental degradation.

SOC 322 Social Policy and Programs 3
(Cross-listed from SoWk 322) Economic and social justice is used as an organizing framework to study the relationship between major social problems and social welfare policy, programs and services. Included are poverty, health and mental-health care, family problems, racism, sexism and other forms of institutionalized oppression. The political aspects of social welfare policy and the legislative process itself are examined in depth. Prerequisites: SoWk 221, 224, or consent of instructor.

SOC 334 Race, Class & Ethnic Relations 3
A study of race/ethnic group interaction, gender and class dynamics focusing on marginalized groups in the U.S. Attention is given to social class, power and majority-group dominance as factors in assimilation and culture-loss or collective self-determination and maintenance of cultural pluralism. Prerequisite: Soc 200 or consent of instructor.

SOC 336 Latin American Societies & Cultures 3
Current developments are examined within the context of a general survey of Latin-American societies and cultures. The course aims to provide: 1) a basic knowledge of Central and South-American geography and social structure, 2) an acquaintance with alternative ways of interpreting information about and experiential knowledge of Latin-American life, and 3) an opportunity to explore themes of oppression and liberation as these pertain to Latin-American thought and experience.

SOC 340 African Societies and Cultures 3
A study of the current development and modernization of the nations and peoples of Sub-Sahara Africa. After brief attention to the geographic, historical and anthropological factors underlying Africa's development, the major focus will be on the current social and political forces that are shaping the developing nations.

SOC 342 Native American Societies & Culture 3
A survey of the diversity and shared patterns of Native American societies and their development from the first settlements of North America until the present day. The course aims to foster a broad and sensitive understanding of the history, lifeways and spirituality of Native Americans and to develop an appreciation for Native American values and contributions to world history.

SOC 345 Women's Concerns 3
(Cross-listed with SoWk 345) This course covers a wide range of issues that are part of contemporary North American women's lives. The place of women in society is approached from the position of social and economic justice. The course: (a) examines and critiques the U.S. American women's movement as an interpersonal and psychological phenomenon; (b) identifies cultural, religious, racial, social, economic and political processes as they affect women's lives; (c) considers women to be persons of worth and value with the right of self-determination; and (d) assists in understanding, contextually, women's requests for help and appropriate intervention strategies. Class participation and small group discussions are important components of course learning.

SOC 351 Contemporary Issues: 3
Study on a current social topic, problem, or issue. Examples include food and society, male identity, Latino families. Topics vary and may be requested by students.

SOC 380 Statistics in Research 3
(Cross-listed from Psyc 380) A study of data analysis and its relationship to research methods in a variety of settings. Collection, presentation and analysis of numerical data, including descriptive, parametric, and nonparametric statistics. Students are strongly encouraged to complete the Quantitative Literacy requirement in the Goshen Core before taking this course.

SOC 391 Methods of Social Research 3
An introduction to the principles and methods of social research in sociology and social work, including the project design, data analysis, and interpretation for both quantitative and qualitative research projects.

SOC 392 Junior Seminar in Social Research 3
Philosophy of science in sociology; synthesis of theory and method; choice of a topic and initial literature review, research design and piloting of any instruments in preparation for Soc 409 Field Experience and Soc 410 Senior Seminar. To be taken Spring semester of the junior year. Prerequisites: Soc 310, 391. Taught in a distance education format as part of the Sociology Collaborative.

SOC 400 Advanced Readings 1
This independent study provides the opportunity for Sociology majors and minors to pursue more individualized, self-guided study and research in a topic of interest, and strengthen their skills and knowledge in an area of sociology or anthropology where they have not been able to do course work. Prerequiste: Soc 310, upper level standing, and consent of instructor.

SOC 409 Field Experience in Sociology 3 (3-6)
Experience in the practice of social research outside the classroom; students continue researching and developing the topic they proposed in Soc 392 Junior Seminar in Social Research in preparation for writing and presenting their thesis research in Soc 410 Senior Seminar. Prerequiste: Soc 392.

SOC 410 Senior Seminar 1
Students complete their thesis research and writing, culminating in a formal presentation of their work. Questions related to Sociology as a profession will also be addressed. Prerequisite: Soc 392.

Social work courses

SOWK 221 Human Behavior 3
This course consists of a study of the individual through the life cycle within the social environment. Focus on physical, psychological, social, cultural and religious factors in the development of the self. Dimensions of diversity (including but not limited to gender, race, class and sexual orientation) and their corollaries of privilege and oppression are seen as paramount in understanding how persons achieve optimum well-being. Select theories of development are discussed and critiqued against understanding of current research, and an understanding of the value of persons and their right to self-determination. A Social World course in the Goshen Core.

SOWK 224 Introduction to Social Work 3
This course provides an analysis of the knowledge base, value structure, purpose, nature, history and function of social work practice in various social welfare activities and social workers through observation and guided participation in programs for meeting human need. Students engage in a specific field experience as part of course requirements and must furnish their own transportation.

SOWK 315 Child Welfare 3
Through a careful analysis of US policies and practices related to the protection and empowerment of children, this Social Work elective addresses the socio-historical roots, inequalities, professional roles and responsibilities, and contemporary realities of what it means to care for children in US society. A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core offered on a rotating basis every fourth year.

SOWK 320 Aging in US Society 3
This Social Work elective explores the normal aging process, the unique challenges experienced by older adults, and the US societal context related to aging. Course content engages a range of issues present in our current context of the rapid growth of the US population over age 65. The course explores how policies, practices, systems and services influence, and are influenced by aging individuals, families, and US society. It examines the ways in which older adults adapt to changes, as well as the ways that interventions/services may assist with these adaptations. It also explores the needs and issues encountered by older adults both within the community and within institutional settings, including a focus on caregivers. This is a Social World course in the Goshen Core, offered on a rotating basis every fourth year.

SOWK 321 Social Service Field Experience 3
This course focuses on an integrated understanding of the organizational and community context for social work practice while offering students an opportunity to observe and interact with social work practitioners and offer specific services to clients in a 40-hour agency placement. The class introduces the skills needed to engage, assess, intervene and evaluate with clients through the phases of social work practice. Additionally, students have the opportunity to reflect and process their experiences in the field, participate in experiential class exercises, and discuss topics related to professionalism, ethical decision making, and diversity. Prerequisites: SoWk 221, 224 or consent of instructor. Students furnish their own transportation.

SOWK 322 Social Welfare Policy & Program I 3
Social, environmental, and economic justice all serve as organizing principles in this course for the study of social problems and the critique of existing and proposed social welfare policy. Students will develop an understanding of policy-making processes and the connection between social problems and social welfare policy, programs, and services across local, state and federal levels. Students will also develop an understanding of the role of policy in the context of generalist social work practice, and be introduced to the concept of policy practice. Prerequisites: SoWk 221, 224 or consent of instructor.

SOWK 323 Social Welfare Policy & Program II 4
This course assists students in acquiring a critical understanding of social welfare policies and programs, and in developing beginning skills in policy and advocacy practice. The content of the course is integrated with that of Social Work Practice Theory I and therefore, students will build upon their knowledge to develop intervention strategies to respond to selected social problems at both the direct practice (micro) and policy/program (macro) levels. Intervention at a macro level requires skill in working with social systems and advocating with individuals and communities for social change. Prerequisite: SoWk 322 or consent of instructor. Taken concurrently with SoWk 325.

SOWK 325 Social Work Practice Theory I 4
This course facilitates student development of social work skills and knowledge base to prepare them for entry into Field Instruction in their senior year of study. The content of the course is integrated with that of Social Welfare Policy and Program II. It emphasizes the development of a theoretical base for social work practice and includes experiential learning activities to build specific social work practice skills. Prerequisites: SoWk 221, 224. Taken concurrently with SoWk 323.

SOWK 345 Women's Concerns 3
This course critically examines the social and economic justice issues related to how gender and sexuality impact the roles, statuses and social locations of women and nonbinary individuals. Course content explores the impact of the women?s movement, along with other social movement(s) related to gender and sexual liberation in the United States. It also identifies the cultural, religious, racial, social, economic, environmental, and political processes that affect the lives of gender minorities in the US. This course is primarily discussion-based. As a Social Work elective, this course is offered on a rotating basis every fourth year.

SOWK 350 Human Services:Special Studies 3
An in-depth seminar on a selected field of service, program or policy issue. Particular emphasis is given to concepts of exploitation and social/economic justice. Check the course offering list to see current options. As a Social Work elective, this course is offered on a rotating basis every fourth year.

SOWK 391 Methods of Social Research 3
(Cross-listed from Soc 391) An introduction of the principles and methods of social research in sociology and social work. Students will develop the knowledge and skills needed to build practice knowledge, evaluate service delivery, and be effective consumers of research knowledge. Prerequisites: Soc 200, 210, SoWk 221, 224.

SOWK 409 Field Instruction 5
Integration and application of knowledge, values, skills, and cognitive and affective processes in the practice setting under a qualified field instructor in a social service agency. Field Instruction must be applied for during the spring of the year preceding enrollment. Usually taken over two semesters; may be taken for 10 credits over the course of one semester by approval of program director. Prerequisites: SoWk 323, 325 and consent of program director. Must be taken concurrently with, or after successful completion of SOWK 425. Students furnish their own transportation for field placement.

SOWK 410 Social Work Senior Seminar 2
This course facilitates the Integration of social work knowledge, theory, and values, with field instruction practice. Integration occurs through class discussions and field trips on relevant topics, and the written and oral examination process. Students actively participate in developing the agenda for classroom sessions. Must be taken concurrently with SOWK 409.

SOWK 425 Social Work Practice Theory II 3
This course requires students to build on and expand their knowledge and skills from Social Work Practice Theory I and Social Welfare Policy and Program II, as they apply them to social work practice with individuals, families and social systems of varying size. This course is taught concurrently with the first semester of field instruction, which provides the opportunity to integrate theory with skill development. Prerequisites: SoWk 323, 325, and admission to the program.

Spanish courses

SPAN 101 Elementary Spanish I 4
Basic skills in understanding, speaking, reading and writing Spanish for beginners; class work includes collaborative learning.

SPAN 102 Elementary Spanish II 4
Basic skills in understanding, speaking, reading and writing Spanish for beginners; class work includes collaborative learning. Prerequisite: Span 101 or equivalent on placement test.

SPAN 103 Elementary Spanish III 4
Emphasis on basic communication skills in the target language and culture. Normally offered only on SST. Prerequisite: Span 102 or equivalent.

SPAN 201 Intermediate Spanish I 3
A review of grammar and intensive oral practice. Prerequisite: Span 102 or equivalent.

SPAN 202 Intermediate Spanish II 3
Reading and discussion of short story, drama and topics in Spanish culture. Major emphasis on improving reading, writing and conversational skills. Prerequisite: Span 103, 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 203 Intermediate Spanish III 4
Continuation of grammar practice with emphasis on spoken Spanish. Normally offered only on SST. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 205 Spanish Conversation & Culture 3
Extensive practice in spoken Spanish. Topics related to life in Spanish-speaking countries. Course especially designed to meet interests of returned SST students. Prerequisite: Span 103, 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 270 Advanced Spanish Grammar 3
Advanced study of Spanish grammar. Prerequisite: Span 202 or equivalent.

SPAN 300 Hispanic Literature 3
Taught in Spanish. This course offers an overview of current and classical literature from Spain, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Spanish-speaking world of North America. Themes, texts, and genres will vary from year to year. Required for Spanish majors; appropriate for returning SST students, CITL students, and others who speak Spanish and want to deepen their knowledge of Hispanic literature. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 301 Introduction to Spanish Literature 3
A survey of the currents in Peninsular literature. Beginnings through Golden-Age writers. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 302 Introduction to Spanish Literature 3
A survey of the currents in Peninsular literature. Late-19th and 20th-century writers. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 303 Spanish Composition I 3
A thorough review of Spanish grammar with exercises in composition. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 304 Spanish Composition II 3
A thorough review of Spanish grammar with exercises in composition. Prerequisite: Span 303 or equivalent.

SPAN 305 Culture of Hispanic World 3
Course focuses on culture, history, literature and music of the Hispanic world, with particular emphasis on Spanish-speaking SST locations. Comprehensive experience in written and spoken Spanish. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 309 Spanish-American Novel 3
A study of selected 20th-century Spanish-American novels representing various types emerging from the Spanish-American scene. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 322 Spanish-American Literature 3
A study of Spanish-American literature from 1880 to present time with special emphasis on the novels, the essay and the short story. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 349 Hispanic Short Stories 3
Presents Hispanic literature through short stories representative of the Hispanic world, originating in Spain, Latin America, United States and Canada, and integrating Spanish grammar and culture. Students read stories; review vocabulary and grammatical structures; study authors' lives and the historical context of the stories; and discuss cultural elements. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 350 Hispanic Film Studies 3
Presents Hispanic culture, conversation and grammar using films in Spanish. Prior to viewing, historical and cultural contexts, literary movements and influences of the era are discussed. Shows representative films, followed by activities which include written assignments, small-group presentations and discussions. Draws comparisons between books and the films based on them; encourages students to use vocabulary and grammar structures used in the films. Prerequisite: Span 201 or equivalent.

SPAN 375 Topics: 3
Topics course for Spanish language and culture.

SPAN 400 Special Projects 1 (1-4)
Projects vary from studies in literature to advanced practice of language skills. Reserved for Spanish majors and minors

SPAN 409 Language Internship 3
Required of all departmental majors. Requirement usually fulfilled in extensive residence or study abroad in the language of the major, internship abroad or student teaching. Majors may also propose projects.

SPAN 410 Senior Seminar 3
Majors and faculty meet regularly for an exchange of views on such topics as vocations in foreign language and other issues related to a life-long study of language, culture, and literature in a diverse and multi-lingual global community. Involves the final assembly of a portfolio in the language of the student's major, as well as field excursions to culturally diverse communities in the area. Independent projects in research or teaching.

Sustainability courses

SUST 155 Topics: Sustainability Seminar 1
This course is designed to provide space for discussion and synthesis among interested students, especially those from the three sustainability-themed majors. This will allow students to integrate learning in their various courses, and gain perspective from their peers in related fields. Repeatable course.

SUST 200 Sustainable Living Skills 1
Introduction to basic skills and decision-making for more sustainable living. Scheduled over one weekend in spring semester at Merry Lea, but also includes online assignments throughout the semester. Addresses how matter, energy and information flow through a human activity or production and how sustainable choices can shift those flows to increase personal health, health of the planet, and eco-justice. Repeatable course.

SUST 201 Intro to Sustainability 3
Students will explore the nature of complex socio-ecological systems and patterns of problems and dynamics within those systems. The "triple bottom line" (people - planet - profit) will be a primary framework through which sustainability solutions will be explored. An emphasis will be placed on understanding how a wide range of solutions in various situations have worked, how governance paradigms arise, and how changes to the systems were possible.

SUST 205 Sustainability Policy 3
The course will provide an understanding of sustainability policy in order to strengthen students' ability to understand, interpret, and react to future developments. Emphasis will be on how existing and evolving judicial, statutory, and regulatory environments influence organizational approaches to protecting, managing and/or using sustainable resources. Participants will understand the interplay of various policy drivers in shaping policy, and how they fit into the policy process regardless of their role in society.

SUST 210 Animal Husbandry 3
This course is part of the Agroecology Summer Intensive Semester at Merry Lea delivered within the context of a learning community at Rieth Village. Students practice skills and learn theory through guided hands-on daily care of livestock on our ecological farm as well as through interactions with diverse professionals and field locations throughout our region. Emphasis is on the integration of animals and cropping systems towards the goal of a regenerative agriculture. Students consider their role in promoting sustainable and ethical animal agriculture for themselves, with their communities, and across society.

SUST 215 Food Systems 3
This course is part of the Agroecology Summer Intensive Semester at Merry Lea and explores food from soil to table (and beyond). Students widen their perspectives by interacting with community members and organizations all along the supply chain and exploring the policies, economic systems, business models, and personal value systems that give rise to both ?conventional? and ?alternative/local? food systems. We also discuss issues of justice, sovereignty, equity, access, and inclusion within food systems. This course is delivered within the context of a learning community at Rieth Village.

SUST 298 Ecology & Sustainability in India 3
This course focuses on the intense connection between ecological context and human society by studying across the steep elevation gradient between the North Indian Plains and the Himalaya Mountains. Students will examine the ways that social structures and practices contribute to or detract from the sustainability of human life in diverse landscapes. The course will included project-based analysis of sustainability strategies with an eye towards their applicability in the North American context.

SUST 300 Sustainability and Regeneration 3
An interdisciplinary course that integrates the theory and practice of sustainable living. It will examine the interaction between human social systems and natural ecological systems in buildings, transportation, food, land use, and energy generation at a global scale, a national scale, and a personal scale within the learning community at Rieth Village. Students will examine the conflicts and issues that have resulted from personal and societal choices and seek regenerative responses to these consequences. Taught as part of Sustainability Leadership Semester at Merry Lea.

SUST 309 Faith, Ethics and Eco-justice 3
In this course, we immerse ourselves in the stories and ideas of people who have made a positive contribution to the sustainability of the planet. What kind of faith or worldview contributed to action? How does our understanding of right and wrong influence the health of earth? How is justice a part of this story? Justice for whom? How does spirituality relate to sustainability? The course emphasizes peacemaking and justice as essential to addressing environmental problems. Assignments encourage students to craft an ethic of their own.

SUST 313 Freshwater Resources 4
This course examines the physical, chemical and biological variables of freshwater lakes, streams and wetlands, as well as groundwaters, all of which influence living organisms in these aquatic ecosystems. Emphasis on how their interactions contribute to the environmental, economic and social health of watersheds that make up every landscape. Taught as part of the Sustainability Leadership Semester at Merry Lea.

SUST 316 Cropping Systems 4
This course provides an understanding of plant growth and development and production and management of annual and perennial crops from planting to harvest, including vegetables, herbs, fruit, forages, and grains. Course will also cover botany of food crops, plant propagation techniques, cropping tools and equipment, post-harvest handling, and alternative crops in light of climate change resilience. The course includes an overview of soil formation and soil physical properties, but will focus on demonstrating common soil management techniques. Topics include soil organisms and ecology, nutrient management, soil testing, and regenerative practices that improve both soil health and agricultural productivity. Students are introduced to the diverse soils of northern Indiana and gain hands-on soil management skills. Students will practice production and soil management techniques at Merry Lea Sustainable Farm. This course is taught during Merry Lea's Agroecology Summer Intensive.

SUST 318 Ecology of Agricultural Systems 4
Course investigates the ecological and social systems involved in and affected when manipulating natural systems to produce food, feed, fiber and medical products. Students are given tools to critically assess landscapes for both their agriculture merits and ecological features. Topics will include the theoretical basis of agroecology, social movements in agricultural history, biological life cycles and nutrient cycles, and alternative agricultural production systems. This course constitutes one of the courses taught during Merry Lea's Agroecology Summer Intensive.

SUST 320 Environmental Policy and Politics 3
Explores the environmental policy-making process with specific attention to water and land management policy in the Elkhart River watershed. Investigates the differences between, as well as the overlap of, local, state and federal water policy. Analyzes how the intersection of socioeconomic forces with scientific data shapes policy development and implementation. Includes a critical and normative analysis of current policy with an assessment of the future role of students in creating and implementing policy. Taught as part of the Sustainability Leadership Semester at Merry Lea.

SUST 330 Environmental Problem Solving 2
Each student will complete a collaborative research project based on a complex environmental issue from the local context and propose responses that promote sustainability. The project will include relevant literature, data collection, analysis of data, and written and oral presentations of findings. Students will demonstrate the intersection of landscape dynamics with faith, policy, and sustainability concepts. Taught as part of the Sustainability Leadership Semester at Merry Lea.

SUST 340 Field Experience in Env Ed 3
Participants will develop and conduct interpretive programs in nature study for visiting school groups; observe practices related to managing a natural area and participate in discussions of environmental issues. Instruction takes place at the Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center. Enrollment by permission of instructor only.

SUST 408 On-Farm Sustainability Internship 1
Practical experience in growing, harvesting, and marketing food which may include caring for soils, pastures, livestock and annual & perennial crops. Internship positions are available during all semesters at the Goshen College campus farm at Merry Lea. Placements with other farm are organized at the student and adviser's discretion to reflect the student's interest in practice, scale, products, and philosophical approach.

SUST 409 Sustainability Internship 1 ((1-3))
Work experience in, or student observation of, a sustainability enterprise or problem. Each student's project is individually arranged with the instructor and must be approved prior to enrolling in this course. The course is designed to integrate and apply theoretical learning with experience.

SUST 410 Sustainability Capstone 3
A seminar course intended for a student's final year of study. Will combine culminating reflection on the nature and role of sustainability in socio-ecological systems, as well as small group project work with a partner organization or institution in the region.

Theater courses

THEA 160 Dance I 2
Introductory course: dance techniques; improvisation; some focus on jazz, ethnic, and other theatrical dance forms.

THEA 200 Theater Practice 1 (1-2)
Applied on-campus work in a theater production or other theater activity. All students involved in a semester production register for at least 0 credits. A repeatable course with a maximum of two hours applicable toward a theater major or minor. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

THEA 201 Theater for Social Change 3
History, elements, and methods of theater performance. Includes script analysis, developing a performance vocabulary, idea generation/research, theater games/exercises, production work and performance critique. Class members will create and present a public performance that explores a current campus or regional social issue. An Artistic World course in the Goshen Core.

THEA 209 Field Experience 3 (1-3)
Experiential learning in an off-campus professional setting, for theater majors and minors. The student contracts with a faculty member in regard to goals, performance expectations, supervision, evaluation and course subtitle. The 209 level is intended for first year and sophomore students. Upper level students should enroll in 409. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

THEA 225 The Theater Experience 3
This course examines the elements of theater and the production process. It will include script analysis of selected plays, acting exercises, and design and production work. A theater lab will be required.

THEA 230 Survey of Musical Theater 3
An introduction to the landmark musicals and key trends in musical styles with a primary focus on 20th and 21st century American and British musicals, artists, and their historical antecedents. The social and cultural contexts giving rise to the creation of various musicals is also examined.

THEA 234 Acting I 3
Fundamental acting skills: movement, voice and character development. An emphasis on Stanislavski's theory of acting and realistic scene work. Scene studies from selected scripts.

THEA 235 The Power of Story 3
An introduction to performance studies as a mode of inquiry. Concentration on the methods of communicating narrative texts for various audiences. Course activities/assignments will explore the power and role of story in contemporary culture by analyzing and participating in various storytelling methods. Attention will be paid to the elements of vocal expression.

THEA 236 Stagecraft 3
Introduction to the techniques of theater production including carpentry, scene painting, props, lighting and sound equipment. Lab work on current productions.

THEA 245 Aesthetics 3
The study of aesthetics focuses on the philosophy of art, the nature of creativity, the work created, the problem of form and style, expression in art, society and ethics and arts and religion. The course includes lectures, primary reading materials and papers.

THEA 260 Dance II 2
Introductory course: dance techniques offered on a rotating basis or based on the needs of an upcoming mainstage production. Styles may include ballet, jazz, modern, lyrical, and tap dance technique. May be repeated for credit when styles and techniques are different. Pre-requisite: THEA 160 or consent of instructor.

THEA 331 Stage Management 3
Training in the structure and practice of theatrical stage management for the academic and professional branches of the discipline.

THEA 332 Design for the Theater 3
Principles, methods and aesthetics of theater production: design, stagecraft, lighting, costume, sound and make-up. Lab work on current productions.

THEA 334 Acting II 3
A study of acting techniques that apply to period styles such as Ancient Greece, Elizabethan, the Restoration, etc. Scene study from selected scripts will be used to explore and develop effective vocal and physical skills to communicate expressive meaning. Laboratory experiences in movement, voice, and acting as well as character and script analysis. Prerequisite: THEA 234 or consent of the instructor

THEA 335 Audition Technique 1
Prepare audition material and develop audition etiquette. Experience mock audition scenarios.

THEA 336 Contemporary Drama 3
Reading, discussion and analysis of dramatic literature of the latter half of the 20th century to today. The course focuses on plays written in or translated into English, but the list of playwrights studied is not limited to England and the U.S.

THEA 338 Directing 3
Principles of interpretation, analysis, design, composition and stage movement. The director's craft: play selection, auditions, rehearsals, and production. Laboratory work under faculty supervision. Prerequisite: Thea 225, Thea 234 or consent of instructor.

THEA 350 Playwriting 3 (1-3)
Students will examine the theory and practice of playwriting. Typically, students write a one-act play as the course requirement. Class will meet regularly as a seminar. Prerequisite: Any college writing course.

THEA 355 Arts in London 4
A May term class that encompasses theater, art and music study and experiences in London, England. Class activities include morning lectures, visits to art galleries, attending music and theater performances, and day trips to Coventry, Stratford-upon-Avon, and other locations. Daily writing assignments and a major project required. A screening process reviews the health and the academic and behavioral performance of all pre-registrants. SST alternate course. Offered in alternate years. Extra cost.

THEA 360 Dance III 2
Advanced dance techniques offered on a rotating basis or based on the needs of an upcoming mainstage production. May be repeated for credit when styles and techniques are different. Pre-requisite: THEA 260 or consent of instructor.

THEA 386 History of Theater I 3
A study of the forms and conventions of all phases of theater (writing, performance, design, architecture) from classical Greece through the Renaissance. Emphasis on trends in performance. Includes the reading of selected plays. May be taken in either order with THEA 387.

THEA 387 History of Theater II 3
A study of the forms and conventions of all phases of theater (writing, performance, design, architecture) from the English Restoration through the 20th century. Emphasis on trends in performance. Includes the reading of selected plays. May be taken in either order with THEA 386.

THEA 388 Themes in Drama 3 (1-4)
A concentrated study of selected themes in drama. Themes might include a major playwright, movement for the stage, creative drama, improvisational or ensemble acting, religious drama or theater and multiculturalism. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor.

THEA 409 Internship 3 (1-3)
An off-campus internship in a professional or non-profit setting for theater majors and minors. The student contracts with a faculty member in regard to goals, performance expectations, supervision, evaluation and course subtitle. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

THEA 410 Senior Seminar 3
Students will discuss practical, professional, and ethical dimensions of their Goshen College education. They will engage in a common reading experience, conduct a final project, interview professionals in their aspirational fields, and prepare a capstone portfolio that reflects designated learning outcomes.

THEA 412 Special Project 1 (1-3)
Students may conduct research of particular interest or pursue specialized applied projects in theater under faculty supervision, such as stage managing, dramaturgy, designing or directing. Repeatable course. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

THEA 413 Mainstage Project 1
Students in the design/technical theater concentration are required to design or stage manage at least one mainstage production as a major requirement. Repeatable course. This is an applied project under theater faculty supervision. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

THEA 414 Senior Project 1
All theater majors are required to complete a senior theater recital (or comparable project) for credit during the senior year. The student prepares a written proposal in advance that requires theater faculty approval. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

Women’s & gender studies courses

WGS 200 Introduction to Gender Studies 3
(Cross-listed with Soc 205) Introduction to major areas of feminist thought (historical and contemporary) and gender analysis that have shaped the field of Women's and Gender Studies. Course objectives focus on increasing students' understandings of the social systemic factors (i.e., sociological factors) that influence the lived experience of individuals across the gender spectrum. Readings, research, small group discussions, and projects enable students to apply feminist theory concerning gender in an interdisciplinary context. This course serves as an introductory survey course for the women's and gender studies minor and a topical exploration for sociology.

WGS 201 Gender in Global Context 3
How do economic development policies impact the basic rights and qualities of life for men and women in different cultural contexts? This course will examine ways that different cultures construct gender roles and how these diverse constructs affect economic development issues in a global context. Cultural attitudes toward LGBTQ identifying individuals is considered as well. A Social World course in the Goshen core. Pre or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy.

WGS 205 Gender Conflict & Community 3
This class engages the individual and social conflicts that emerge around gender identity. Through the work of activists, scholars, philosophers, and writers--historical and contemporary--students will better understand gendered experience and identity in a patriarchal context. Within the framework of feminist/gender theory, we will use intersectionality as a lens to examine the ways that gender issues vary within multiple contexts, particularly in the areas of race, class, and culture. We will also critique issues of privilege and power. By understanding the relationship of gender and peacemaking, students will develop strategies for bridging difference, fostering community, and advocating for social change. A Peacemaking course in the Goshen Core.

WGS 207 Gender and Race in Literature 3
(Cross-listed from Engl 207/307) Offered in conjunction with WGS 307 with parallel assignments for those with more limited experience with literary analysis. See description below.

WGS 209 Practicum 1
An approved internship, work experience, or service hours related to gender issues on campus or in the community. Requires 40 clock hours per credit hour. Weekly meeting with supervisor and final presentation. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.

WGS 210 Sociology of the Family 3
(Cross-listed from Soc 210) The course combines institutional and functional approaches in the study of courtship, mate selection, marriage, family roles and relationships, family disorganization and social trends affecting the family in contemporary society and culture.

WGS 221 Human Behavior 3
(Cross-listed from SoWk 221) A study of the individual through the life cycle within the social environment. Focus on physical, psychological, social, cultural and religious factors in the development of the self.

WGS 230 Ethnography and Culture 3
(Cross-listed from Soc 230) An introduction to ethnographic methods and cultural analysis. The course will operate on two interrelated dimensions, one focused on the history of ethnography and cultural analysis in anthropology and sociology, the other focused on practical techniques of qualitative research, including specific skills in qualitative research design, methods, and data analysis. The course includes an ethnographic research project.

WGS 260 Human Sexuality 3
(Cross-listed from Soc 260) Biographical, psychological and sociological factors determining sex-role identification and role performance; human reproduction, fertility control and sexual disorders; social and spiritual values in human sexuality; sex discrimination and movements toward sex equality.

WGS 275 Gender and Popular Culture 3
(Cross-listed from WGS 375) Offered in conjunction with WGS 375 with parallel assignments for those with more limited experience with Women's and Gender Studies. See description below.

WGS 307 Gender & Race in Literature 3
(Cross-listed from Engl 207/307) The study of literature written by women, particularly the cultural and theoretical concerns related to gender, ethnicity, and race. Topics addressed relate to the literary canon, gender representation and feminist literary theory. Offered in conjunction with WGS 207.

WGS 316 Liberation Theologies 3
(Cross-listed from Rel 316) Liberation Theologies focuses on three contemporary theologies of liberation (Latin American Liberation Theology, North American Black Theology and North American Feminist Theology) as they are developing in the Americas. The course examines similarities and differences among these three theologies - in conversation with Womanist and Latina theologies - as each addresses specific theological questions raised by the people of God in actual contemporary situations of exploration and oppression. The course also has a praxis component in which students move outward into the community.

WGS 322 Social Policy and Programs 3
(Cross-listed from SoWk 322) Economic and social justice is used as an organizing framework to study the relationship between major social problems and social welfare policy, programs and services. Included are poverty, health and mental-health care, family problems, racism, sexism and other forms of institutionalized oppression. The political aspects of social welfare policy and the legislative process itself are examined in depth. Prerequisites: SoWk 221, 224, 321 or consent of instructor.

WGS 324 Women in the Bible 3
(Cross-listed from Bibl 324) An examination of the characterization of women in Old and New Testament narratives, their role in biblical societies and the early church and their representation in Judeo-Christian culture, particularly our contemporary culture. The course draws upon current research and exegetical strategies in biblical studies. Prerequisite: CORE 120

WGS 325 Topics 3
Special topics courses in different disciplines that focus on specific issues related to women and/or gender.

WGS 328 Spiritual Writings of Women 3
(Cross-listed from Rel 328) A survey of women's writings about the spiritual journey. Includes a range of medieval through 20th-century women. Examines women's use of their experiences as one source of theologizing.

WGS 330 Gender in World History 3
(Cross-listed from Hist 330) A comparative studies in world history course. Women have been left out of the world's history, particularly women in the non-Western world who are stereotyped as oppressed and passive. Putting women back into the center of world history unsettles older historical paradigms and challenges our ethnocentric assumptions. Explores the diverse experiences of women as active agents in shaping their world through a comparative case-study approach.

WGS 334 Race, Class & Ethnic Relations 3
(Cross-listed from Soc 334) A study of race/ethnic group interaction, gender and class dynamics focusing on marginalized groups in the U.S. Attention is given to social class, power and majority-group dominance as factors in assimilation and culture-loss or collective self-determination and maintenance of cultural pluralism. Prerequiste: Soc 200 or consent of instructor.

WGS 335 Religion and Sexuality 3
(Cross-listed from Rel 330) An exploration of the meaning and purpose of human sexuality in the context of Christian (and other) religious faith(s) and in relation to culturally based attitudes. Topics addressed will include body phenomenology, body theology, gender issues, historical developments, sexuality and spirituality, singleness, marriage, friendship, sexual violence, and a variety of other theological, ethical and relational issues. The course draws extensively on feminist models, themes and authors.

WGS 345 Women's Concerns 3
(Cross-listed from SoWk 345) This course covers a wide range of issues that are part of contemporary North American women's lives. The place of women in society is approached from the position of social and economic justice. The course: (a) examines and critiques the U.S. American women's movement as an interpersonal and psychological phenomenon; (b) identifies cultural, religious, racial, social, economic and political processes as they affect women's lives; (c) considers women to be persons of worth and value with the right of self-determination; and (d) assists in understanding, contextually, women's requests for help and appropriate intervention strategies. Class participation and small group discussions are important components of course learning.

WGS 355 Contemporary Gender Issues 3
An upper-level topics course that explores selected issues in the lives of individuals across the gender spectrum, such as bodies, sexuality and health; family relationships; gender and war; gender and sexual violence; gender and economic status in globalizing economies. Professors bring an interdisciplinary perspective to the subject. This course is taught in a cooperative learning environment.

WGS 370 Personal Violence and Healing 3
(Cross-listed from PJCS 370) A seminar course in which advanced students examine selected problems in violence. The course focuses upon the socio-cultural matrix of an individual's encounters with violence and integrates religious and ethical studies with the social sciences.

WGS 375 Gender and Popular Culture 3
(Cross-listed with Comm 385) A critical analysis of gender representation in social institutions, popular culture, literature, and film. Readings and projects will address definitions of femininity and masculinity, as well as gender, power, and sexuality, with the objective of helping students critique cultural representations and examine how textual narratives shape their own perceptions of gender, sex, and identity. Individual or collaborative projects take the form of art work, videos, texts (stories, poems, critiques, research), or performances, presented in a seminar format. Offered in conjunction with WGS 275.

WGS 390 Gender Theory & Practice 3
This seminar-style course addresses key issues in gender theory and practice with an emphasis on intersectionality (race, class, gender, etc.) in local and global contexts. Two hours of course credit will integrate feminist and gender theory with each student's disciplinary skills and expertise through reading, presentaitons, and portfolio. Portfolio will examine personal and preofessional applications of gender theory in the future, connected to GC Core portfolio. One hour will be a student-defined project that can be individualized or collaborative, but will focus on addressing a specific gender issue in the community. Prerequisite: one WGS course or permission of instructor.

WGS 400 Advanced Readings 1 (1-3)
Individualized, self-guided study and research in areas not covered by current curriculum. Requirements include 1000 pages of reading and 5 pages of writing per credit hour, four meetings with supervisor, and final presentation. Prerequisite of two WGS courses and permission of instructor.

WGS 409 Advanced Practicum 1
An approved internship, work experience or service hours related to gender issues on campus or in the community. Requires 40 clock hours per credit hour. Weekly meeting with supervisor and final presentation. Prerequisite: two WGS courses and permission of instructor.