- A photographic image produced by the collage technique."
- A technique of composing a work of art by pasting on a single surface
various materials not normally associated with one another, as newspaper
clippings, theater tickets, fragments of an envelop, etc."
To Meet first several weeks
(to be determined
for Fall 2002)
For the 2 p.m. lab,
bring some small objects, pictures, photos, words, paper, magazine clippings,
bits of cloth, memorabilia, and so on that you might be able to use in
a collage-like arrangement about yourself. The scanners can make digital
images from anything small enough to lay on top of them (legal size paper
size). The scanner works about like a color photocopier. We will also have
a digital camera there to make images of anything too large for the scanners.
In the first session,
you will each take four pictures of yourself with a digital camera (others
in your group will help). The four pictures allow the comparison of four
common types of light.
When you see the four
images on the computer screen, you make a choice about the one to use.
Artists make many choices. One or more of these photographs, or one
you bring, will become part of your self-portrait montage.
We play the Conversation
Game in class to generate additional ideas for this project.
is Learned in the Process
Make one exposure in sunlight.
Make one exposure outdoors
in open shade or under an overcast sky.
Make one exposure indoors
with the built-in flash.
Make one exposure indoors
beside a window so that the window light (not sunlight) falls on one side
of your face.
Unlike some subjects,
many feel art is an ill-structured discipline. When learning a complex
discipline like art, many learning instances are needed. Learning
art is a bit like looking a strange landscape. It is easy to make
mistakes about it if we only look from one direction. Only by walking
through the landscape, and seeing it from many perspectives can it be understood.
Much of what we learn in art is learned during the process of making art.
We have to walk through it many times to understand it well.
Many think the final
product is the reason for making art. Even most professional artists
are not as interested in the final outcome as they are in what they can
learn during the process. The process is a search, an experiment,
and a quest. These are some of the questions to ask yourself in order
to become aware of what you are learning during this art making process.
Artists answer these questions for themselves by trying various options
until they cannot think of any other ways. When art students are
in a class, they often check with each other and with with instructor.
How can I communicate
How can I communicate
my values visually?
How can I communicate
my feelings visually?
How can I use symbols
and visual metaphors to communicate?
How can I create emphasis,
unity, depth, repetition, etc. to be more effective?
How can I make this say
something about who I am?
How can I learn new skills
or how I achieve mastery of older skills?
How will this work help
me learn to help others learn art (how to teach art)?
for Scaning Instructions
The final compositions
will be color laser printed and used as the Cover Art for your sketchbook/journal
binders used in this class. We will learn how to attach the computer printout
to the cover of our sketchbook/journal in class when we meet in Visual
Art 20, week three.
Additionally, this composite photo montage may also be used
as an illustration for a web site about your own teaching interest and
experience. You can post it on the Internet. If you didn't know you have
a personal web site, take a look at it now. Go to:
Use your actual Goshen College e-mail name in place of
"your e-mailname" above. You will see a web page waiting for content provided
by you. In the above URL, be sure to precede your email name with the ~
mark (top left of keyboard) and don't include any spaces.
Today's schools are actively looking for teachers who
are not afraid to creatively use technology in the classroom. Since many
current teachers have been too busy or unwilling to learn new skills, the
schools are looking to their new teachers to bring them into the computer
age. Goshen College makes it easy to use a Mac to drag and drop web pages
to your personal web site. We are finding that students who have achieved
some degree of technological mastery with their
own web sites have had better teaching job opportunities.
for How to use Layers
This link is specifically for the Mac
Lab at Goshen College. Other computer labs may differ. Additional instructions
are given in the studio session, or from the student assistant who knows
Photoshop and Macintosh computers.
and Sequence (the main steps)
Make four image files
of yourself using a digital camera.
page to help improve the photo of yourself.
Develop content ideas
and concepts about yourself.
Scan in personal objects,
etc. for additional content using flatbed scanners
Manipulate, combine, and
compose the work using Photoshop.
Color laser print the
work 7.5 inches wide and from from 5 to 10 inched high.
Adhere the work to the
cover of the sketchbook/journal.
Discuss the designs.
Learn to convert it to
a web page including text.
Learn about similar artwork
done by at least one famous artist.
Learn about similar artwork
done by at least one artist from another culture.
of this Project (art lesson)
You will use your
own image and images of things, persons, objects, words, etc. that are
in some way significant to you. This link describes a method
to come up with ideas for content. The goal is reveal something
about who you are and what you care about. In art education we also
use the terms: Subject Matter and Topics to describe this
In Photoshop is it
possible to change the size
and many other attributes of any part of the composition. Use size
to as well as other attributes to modify the importance of components of
your composition. It many cultures size distortion in art is standard
way to represent relationships reflecting the importance of parts of a
composition. Generally something that is to be more important can
be shown as larger so that the viewer notices it more.
responds to subject matter in art. A picture of a butterfly and
a picture of a snake do not get the same response, but they both get response.
In addition to subject matter, in this assignment you are to create unity
and harmonious variety in composition. This will be done through
the use of design principles applied to the
The Visual Elements
elements) are: (see the Composition
and Design page for details)
Color - Line - Shape
- Value (light and dark tones) - Volume (form) - Texture
Principles or rules (some creative artists purposely break rules)
Emphasis - some
say "Center of Interest." Most artists put it a bit off center. Some artist
avoid it on purpose. They want all parts of the work to be equally interesting.
Harmony - complex
but pleasing visual combinations are harmonious.
Unity - when nothing
distracts from the whole you have unity. Unity without variation can be
uninteresting - like driving through western Kansas on the interstate.
Balance is the
consideration of visual weight and importance.
Depth - effects
of depth, space, projection toward the viewer add interest. In the real
world atmospheric perspective causes colors and shapes to get blurrier
and foggier in the distance. Linear perspective in the real world makes
things look smaller in the distance. Some artists try to avoid depth by
making large things duller and small things brighter, and so on, to make
the objects contradict realism. Many artists don't believe in realism even
though they could do it if they wanted to. It seems too boring to them.
Realism wouldn't be art for some artists.
Variety - You create
variety when elements are changed. Repeating a similar shape but changing
the size can give variety and unity at the same time. Keeping the same
size, but changing the color can also give variety and unity at the same
time. In visual composition, there are many ways you can change something
while simultaneously keeping it the same.
Repetition - Some
ways to use Repetition of the Visual Elements are:
implies that both sides are the same. Gothic cathedrals are often symmetrical
with their central emphasis pointing to heaven.
is more interesting. Both sides are the similar in visual weight but not
is not used much, but it is like a daisy or sunflower with everything arranged
around a center. Rose windows of cathedrals use this system.
Here is a page of the
most used PhotoShop
techniques for this project.
Size Variation can apply
to shape, form, etc.
Repetition can be used
on all of the Visual Elements.
Variation can be used
with all of the visual elements. See "Variety" above. You can do this with
all the elements. Artists do this all the time.
Transparency and overlapping
in varying degrees can create depth and connections.
There are many styles
(aesthetic stances) in visual art. Most artists develop very personal
styles much in the way we each develop unique handwriting. There are few
broad style categories that include almost all art. Laura
Chapman* attempts to simplify this by listing four styles under which all
others can be listed.
Art History Objectives
This assignment is done in a fantastic style. It is commonly called Surrealism.
In this style you are to juxtaposition things that could never be seen
this way in our waking world, but maybe in our dreams. In this kind of
art you can levitate, be a super hero, experience unimaginable joy, pain,
or grief. Microscopic things can be huge and the largest objects can be
hardly visible. You can travel through time and space. You are only limited
by your imagination and your willingness to play and experiment.
You will learn about
at least one well known artist who creates collage or montage and works
surrealistically (fantastic style). This link describes a "WebQuest"
portion of this assignment portion of this project that is designed
to assist you in learning to teach art history. This work will be shown
to the class after the project is completed.
Multicultural and Diversity Objectives
You will become familiar
with at least one well known artist who is not a member of the majority
in United State culture. This artist(s) creates collage or montage and
works surrealistically (fantastic style). This work will be shown to the
class after the project is completed.
You will become more
familiar with the use of computers and digital image creation and manipulation
as art medium, as art process, and as art form. This project gets
us into the use of
Selection Tools, Cutting
and Pasting, Layers, Filters, and Transformations. While the tools
and commands are great fun to use, we want to look for ways to create meaning
and feeling in the work. Here are some ideas:
Art Education Objectives
Can we use unexpected
size to add importance to parts of the composition?
Can you make certain parts
of the image in full color and make other parts in black and white in order
to add emphasis, mystery, or an old/new look?
Can you combine parts
from more than one image in order to create surreal juxtapositions that
questions our assumptions about reality?
Can you use PhotoStop
filters to contrast an artistic effect (i.e. a drawing look) that is used
for part of the montage while another part is very realistic in order to
stretch the expected boundaries of photographic presentation?
Can you change the scale
or perspective in certain areas to create a surreal effect to show humor,
fright, or another emotion?
Can you invent a different
approach (your choice) that could not be easily achieved by simply cutting
and pasting pieces of paper in a collage.
In addition to using the
final product as a cover design for your course sketchbook-journal this
assignment can be used as an image file on your own web page.
How does this project
help us become better art teachers? We are currently studying Chapter 3
in the Simpson, et.al. text. In "Cultivating Artistic Behaviors" the authors
emphasize that visual forms and art materials can be employed by us and
our students to produce feeling and meaning. This project cultivates of
our own artistic behavior. As we work on this project, we can use it launch
our creative ideas for teaching. While working on this assignment, we can
gain experience and become more familiar with ideas, materials, and technologies
that can be used to cultivate artistic behavior in the classroom (with
modifications appropriate to the student's age and experience).
Some art educators
and art teachers hesitate to show examples of finished projects before
students do their creative work. As your teacher, I feel that looking at
another artist's work could hinder your creative thinking if it solves
a problem before you solve it yourself.
Many art teachers do
"image flooding" as their way to introduce a new assignment and help students
visualize the end product. It works to get better products. I am not convinced
that it is a good way to teach thinking. It is a good way to teach, "monkey
see, monkey do", but this does not seem like an appropriate way to learn
art, which in our society is not art if not creative.
Imitation may be the most common learning style for children,
but they probably don't need training in how to imitate. Who needs a teacher
for that? There are other learning styles that are often much more useful
in coping and solving the problems of living in today's world.
Instead of showing
you examples of self-portrait montages, you may look at these two examples
of web pages that I made by placing real objects on a flat bed scanner.
is my Acorn page
This is my pottery
"Planting trees is
a good thing"
"One out of four women
in the United States have worked in ceramics sometime during their life."
According to Michael Feldman's "What Do You Know? -- Not Much" radio program
Sometimes the Photo
Communications class does a similar Self Portrait Composite assignment.
You may recall seeing these in the Leaf Raker display cases from time to
This scene is at Honeyville Elementary School, Topeka,
IN, fall, 1998. They are discussing their surrealistic collages of
faces created to show feeling (emotion).
In this photo, student teacher, Kim Lint, is conducting
a critique with third graders who have completed their montages. Art criticism
is not a time to look for failure. The critique is a time to review vocabulary,
describe the emotions shown, analyze the methods used to produce feelings,
and to interpret the works. Because the discussion is about the children's
own work, it is one of the best learning moments in the art lesson.
See Footnote 2 below
* Laura Chapman. Approaches to Art in Education, 1978.
Brace Jovanovich, NY. pp 46-52.
From the Goshen News, page
1, January 14, 2000: ". . . 100
percent of Honeyville third-graders scored above the state standard in
last fall's Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress." Most
teachers and parents in Indiana know these as the ISTEP tests. It is exceedingly
rare for a whole grade to score this high.
here to read more about this highly successful art program.
Students in Art for Children class are invited to send the instructor
ideas, suggestions, concerns, and questions about this lesson and anything
else about this course. e-mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org
All rights reserved.
Goshen College students may print a copy for their own use. Others must
permission to reproduce or publish. Photos, layout, and text ©
Marvin Bartel 1999
critique printing instructions
scope and sequence objective
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Updated September 8,