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309: Art for Children
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Marvin Bartel, instructor, Goshen College,
The first test on Monday, Oct. 14, 2002,
Test Format for Test
The test will likely consist of several
columns of matching
One or several essay item(s) worth at least 10
A few multiple choice questions may be included.
From The Library
Study chapter 3 in Betty Edwards,
the Right Side of the Brain (New Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain)
It is on reserve in Good Library. Chapter 3 explains the research
dealing with split brain theory.
Read the following
see this link for an essay answer.
Study Chapters 1, 2,
and 3 in text.
Master any terms or concepts you find to be
new to you.
Review the lists of terms at end of chapters. Be sure to pay
of new vocabulary used in text. See lists at end of
of design and composition
Ideas are generated
Handout and your notes: related to
2 and Developmental Stages
"Teaching Art Well"
"Drawing is Basic"
is attached to "Teaching Art Well")
Bartel's analysis the the Duncum article and Unsworth response
form a study
When reviewing content and ideas, many find it most
helpful to discuss
questions and answers with several other students in the class.
to Judith Harris in the
The Nurture Assumption,
programmed to learn more from peers than they do from parents and
If it works for children, it may work for older students too. Forming a
study group or finding a study partner can be a very effective way to
some of your review.
Ask each person in
group to come with questions they think will be on the test.
Use your private study time to read and prepare
yourself for these sessions
and to review in response to any weaknesses revealed during study
to Earn Better Test Grades
see this link.
What is Covered in Test I?
links to review items.
Items on the test will come from:
From Studio Sessions
The Self-Portrait Montage
(use the Back button to return here)
Things taught/learned in the Thursday/Friday sessions working with
at to review a method of generating ideas for an art project.
See your "
" for ideas on assessment in art. What criteria could
used to grade the studio work we do? What ideas could students
and what could the teacher evaluate?
made by passing clay. What are synthetic and
modeling? Why is changing habits of work importnat? What
the reasons student creativity is greater with some assignments than
What are four or more artistic styles that would include nearly every
The scope (what all is included) and sequence (what is first, second,
and last) of art units or lessons as described in
The above link is lengthy, but the section on "Teaching the Lesson"
does summarize many of the "best practices" used when teaching art.
From Class Session
Study your notes from things presented in the classes on
2 pm sessions.
Study your notes from Monday evening sessions.
What are the three sources for essentially all subject matter for
What is learned by blind contour drawing.
What are some drawing and/or observation aides and technigques that can
help make observation drawing easier to learn?
What art elements have been used in each of the rituals? What
art terminology has been learned during the rituals. Note the
principles, and vocabulary used to desribe aspects (i.e. methods of
of the ritual drawings. What senory input has been used other
Videos shown here have included portions of "Drawing Lessons" where
Bartel is working with a three year old girl. What are some
of motivation used?
After making a photo montage, we viewed webquest results shown us be
students. What was learned from this?
"The Little Boy" drew red flowers and green stems and made a deep dish
from clay. What are the important improvements that are needed in
the case of both the first and the second teacher's approaches and
in order the bring them up to the standards described in
? When thnking about this, keep flowers and clay
as the topics used, but be able to teach the two lessons so that the
learns what should be learned in art lessons.
Study handouts including Duncum article on reserve: "What Elementary
Teachers Need to Know to Teach Art Well"
pp 33-37 and the response, "
by Jean Morman Unsworth. Become familiar with all
the strategies described by Duncum. Some of the strategies are
and beneficial. Other strategies are also natural, but not
beneficial by many art educators. Which strategies does Unsworth
consider bad, and why does she think they are bad? See
and analysis the the Duncum article and Unsworth response.
Some Study Questions for test 1
of Test 1 Review Items
If we define Art as a symbolic visual
does Carroll's three part conception of art add to this?
What does she mean by a repertoire of
ideas about materials?
What are examples of how certain art
materials and processes
are particularly well suited to say and express particular kinds of
What design ideas are easier to learn with
which with drawing or montage?
In what ways might making a drawing be
and effective than making a photograph? Or, the other way around?
What materials would be most appropriate
to teach the
children observational skills?
In our story about the Little Boy who
learned to draw
red flowers with green stems, does the first teacher think art is a
or a process?
In the short story,
"The Little Boy,"
by Helen Buckley,
artistic behaviors does
teacher encourage? What
the implied messages of the first teacher? What kind of society
need teachers like the first teacher? What would the second
need to do to actually be an art teacher instead of a clerk?
There may be some preliminary learning in
an art lesson
that employs some step-by-step instruction in order to focus the
learning about processes and concepts. How does step-by-step
used to introduce a process differ from step-by-step instruction used
insure a certain design or finished art product? What are the
between a product centered art teaching approach and
art teaching approach?
What needs to happen if process learning
is to take
place? Why does the
teacher fail to do to achieve
learning and creativity in the work of the child in this story of red
and green stem? How does a teacher change a student's habits of work
without being product centered?
Just as an artist never creates the
perfect and final
work because there is always another way to try that might be more
teaching is an art that has
final truths that work in every
with every student. How can creative art processes be taught? How
does one teach the thought process needed to come up with your own
to a visual problem (assignment)? What do you do? What do you not do?
do you limit? Is creativity more likely to respond to limits than to no
limits? What do you give? What do you require? How do you help? What
of help do you withhold? Why and how do you change habits of work? How
can we help students to learn to think of ideas they can use in thier
Why might an art teacher ask questions
are working on their artwork? Would the teacher always want the
answered verbally? What kind of questions does the teacher want
in the artwork? What is the motivational difference between asking a
and giving a suggestion?
What did Viktor Lowenfeld mean when he
said, "We need
to make the child's passive knowledge active."?
Can motivation for art work involve more
sensory perception and verbal instruction? In what ways have senses
than seeing and hearing been used thus far for motivation for art
in our class?
If the teacher wants to avoid having the
aspects of the historical, contemporary or cross-cultural artwork, when
in an art lesson can a teacher introduce examples from art history,
art, or art of another culture?
What are the definitions and examples for
Media, Visual Elements, Principles of Design, Subject Matter, Style,
What are some examples of contrast other
than tone or
value when it comes to visual concepts that can be used as the basis
In the text on pages 94 - 99 is a
discussion of what
we have called a "crisis of confidence". How does text suggest this be
avoided? Explain the effect of good observational drawing
"on the right side of the brain" on the likelyhood of developing a
When making clay sculpture of animals or
Lowenfeld said children can learn to work either of two ways. What are
they? Which way is most likely to be the untutored way for a first
child? Which way would insure some "changing habits of work" and help
learn new ways to approach the form?
Why did Viktor Lowenfeld pass out hard
candy to children
before they drew pictures? What was he attempting to learn?
Why do we often use food for the art
subject, and we
never use food as the art medium?
Why do some art teachers who have children
and model from actual animals never ask them to draw, paint, and model
from photographs of animals.
What are some methods and processes used
in our class
thus far that can be used for idea generation and refinement (before
on the final project in an art assignment)?
What design principles can be applied to
of a montage while working in Photoshop?
As seen in the handout, Critique Form what
kind of issues
can easily be discussed without being negative when reviewing each
What is DBAE? What are the four
disciplines of Discipline
Based Art Education? Can you explain what they are and how they are
What are some teacher methods that can be
used to foster
a richer and more fluent ("fluent", means the ability to think of many
possibilities rapidly) memory and imagination before and during an art
What are things done during a non-drawing
to make sure students' perceptual intake is activated to its fullest.
can teachers and parents do to insure that they pay attention, more is
noticed, and more information is collected.
What are methods used in our class to help
see what they may otherwise overlook when they are making an
drawing? What verbal and non-verbal methods are used?
Problem solving ability is important
because there are
many problems and injustices in society. Children who grow up with the
ability to use problem solving skills can help make the world better
themselves and others. However, people don't solve problems unless they
see them as problems. How can teachers use something like an art
or project to teach
problem recognition and definition
? Can you
give an example?
What are the connections between "changing
work", "limiting options in an assignment", and "student creativity"?
If the teacher does not show the example
are the students supposed to know what to do?
what the final exam covers
? (previous year)
used on Previous Tests
skip to down to
here for another study sheet just for Test 2
2 (also see this link)