## The Energy Challenge

Chapter 16.

### Non-renewable energy

Years to peak production...

• Germany--Germany!--is getting 15% of its electricity from solar power. Hopes for 30% by 2020.
• [Last year] High speed train in France has significantly reduced the pressure for more roads and personal transportation.
• ~80% of French electricity from nuclear power.
• Denmark supplies ~20% of its electricity from wind.
• Sweden has significantly reduced energy for heating houses with upgraded building codes.

### Conservation

If a country uses less energy, how can we tell whether it was because

• our standard of living went down? or
• our efficiency of using energy went up?

The Gross National Product is very crudely proportional to our standard of living. So let's compare energy use to GNP...

### Conservation potential

See also this Nationmaster graph of the UN's Human Development index vs per capita energy consumption.

### Nuclear energy

#### Average British person uses each day...

• 4 kg of coal, 4 kg of oil, and 8 kg of natural gas = 16 kg /day fossil fuels.
• $CO_2$ Emissions: 30 kg / day

Energy of 16 kg fossil fuels =
Energy of 0.002 kg uranium, refined from 0.2 kg ore / day

#### Dangers

EU and (red) Paul Scherer Inst estimates.

#### Waste

Coal:

• Ash from 10 coal-fired power plants: 40 liters (10 gallons) per person per year.
• $CO_2$: ~1.00 kg / kwh. (Natural gas: 0.46 kg / kwh

Nuclear:

• Waste from all of 10 UK nuclear reactors: 0.84 liters per person per year.
• $CO_2$: 0.066 kg / kwh (life cycle emissions

#### A passionate environmentalist?

George Monbiot writes (right after Fukushima)

Even when nuclear power plants go horribly wrong, they do less damage to the planet and its people than coal-burning stations operating normally.

### Writing

Writing exercise...

### Suggested exercises

Chapter 16, Conceptual exercises: 2, 7, 8, 21, 23, 26, 31,