from Murten to Moravia
Abstract: Jakob Gelthuser, a Reformed pastor from the Swiss village of Murten, broke the boundaries of state toleration when, in the 1580s, he tried to understand the Anabaptists of his time, not only through reading polemical literature denouncing the movement but also through direct and authentic personal contacts. Gelthuser established wide-ranging contacts with Swiss Brethren adherents, he acquired and studied the first German edition of Menno's Fundamentbuch of 1575 and he undertook an investigative journey to Moravia in order to become better acquainted with the Hutterite colonies there. When authorities called him to account for his actions, Gelthuser made several very revealing statements about the Anabaptists of his day that open up numerous new insights into a phase of Anabaptist history about which very little is known.
As is well known, the relationship between the Dutch and Upper German Swiss Anabaptists of the sixteenth century was anything but tranquil. Despite several colloquies (especially those in Strasbourg in 1555 and 1557), it proved impossible to resolve the existing theological differences between the two groups. Above all, the two factions could not reach consensus on the issues of Christology, excommunication and shunning. Reciprocal relations came to a tentative low point in 1559 when Menno Simons terminated spiritual fellowship with the Upper German group on account of these issues and then placed them under the ban.
Surprisingly, however, there was no lack of attempts in the ensuing decades to pick up the mutual discussions. Although the conferences at Neckartal (1575) and Cologne (1591) did not lead to comprehensive agreement, they did reflect a desire by the representatives of both sides not to break off contact with each other.
Quite possibly this ongoing contact was encouraged by the publication in 1575 of a German translation of Menno Simons' writings. The translation from Low German-entitled Fundamentum: Ein Fundament und klare Anweisung von der Seligmachenden Lehre unsers Herren Jesu Christi-was based on the third edition of Menno's work (1567). It remains unclear who requested or financed this printing, who translated it into German, or where it was finally printed. It does seem plausible, however, that interest in a German edition of Menno's works was greatest in those areas with the most contact between the High German-Swiss and the Dutch Anabaptists, which points especially to the Eifel region and to that part of the Rhineland around Cologne.
It is thus all the more surprising-as Heinold Fast noted already 40 years ago-that a sixteenth-century codex including, among other items, two longer texts by Menno Simons, was found in the deep Anabaptist south, namely in the Burgerbibliothek in Bern.
Fast's analysis clarified two points: first, that the German Fundamentbuch of 1575 served as the source for both of the handwritten copies of Menno's writings; second, that the copyist can be identified as a Swiss Anabaptist, both by the dialect used and by distinctive changes that were made in its contents. From a theological standpoint, the omissions and revisions of Menno's passages that argue for rigorous practice of the ban and shunning are characteristic of the Swiss Brethren. Unfortunately, very little is known about this manuscript; we know virtually nothing concrete about its origins, the motives that brought it into existence, or the identity of the copyist.
As much as I would have liked to solve the riddle of the publication of the first German edition of Menno's Fundamentbuch of 1575 or the origins of Codex 693 of the Bern Burgerbibliothek, I must admit that I have not yet been able to do so. During the course of my research on the Anabaptist movement in Basel, however, I stumbled upon the fact that the Fundamentbuch of 1575 was available in Switzerland very soon after its publication. The turbulent and exciting story of its appearance-pieced together from archival sources-is both informative for Anabaptist research and offers clues to several questions that have hitherto remained unanswered.
Gelthuser's Early Contacts with Anabaptism (1573-1578)
During the winter semester of 1556-57 a certain "Jakobus Gelthuserus Liechstalenses" matriculated in the theological faculty of the university of Basel. He was the son of Hans Gelthuser, who served for many years as the Reformed pastor at Munzach close to Liestal, before later taking the pastorate at Seon in the Bern/Aargau region. In 1558 Jacob was elected to succeed his father in Seon, but he apparently never assumed the position. Instead, on August 14, 1559 he married "his wife Agatha" (sin[er] husfrow Agatha) in Liestal. Beyond this, however, he left behind no other traces in the church record books there. At about this same time he entered the service of the church and seems to have held pastorates in the Thurgau area as well as in Brugg before serving as pastor of Wangen an der Aare from 1573 to 1578.
Gelthuser's first known contacts with contemporary Anabaptism fall into this period. Early in 1583 he stated that some five years earlier-thus around 1577 or 1578-he had visited the market in Solothurn. While there, he "stopped at the house of the doctor," (inn des Doctors hus ÿnkert), where he met a large number of people eating together at two tables. Of those present he had known only "the Anabaptists (Töüffere) Köderle and Cedo." When Gelthuser asked about the identity of the others, his host simply responded, "they are the most pious and upright people, namely Anabaptists" (es sÿenndt de frömbdschen unnd biderben lüt, nämlich Töüffer).
Subsequently, Gelthuser became involved in a discussion with this group of Anabaptists, and the talk turned to theological beliefs. As the conversation continued, the Anabaptists produced a book to illustrate their position and showed it to Gelthuser. He later referred to it as "their book, called Brotherly Life in which are written seven articles that contradict holy evangelical teaching" (Ir Buch, das brüderlich läben genannt, darinnen 7 Artickell wider die H. Evangellÿsche Leer beschribenn). After finishing breakfast with his conversation partners, Gelthuser left the gathering and returned home. What is surprising about this incident is the existence, on the one hand, of an obviously well known physician whose house in Solothurn served as a meeting place for the Anabaptists. On the other hand, it is equally surprising that Gelthuser, as a Reformed Bernese pastor, clearly did not take any initiative to inform the authorities of Solothurn about the matter.
Jacob Gelthuser as Pastor at Murten (1578-1582)
Early in June of 1578 Gelthuser assumed the pastorate of the German-speaking Reformed congregation in Murten. During his tenure there as preacher of the Word he took pains "to systematically teach to the people the most important articles of faith and the Christian apostolic confession, all in a thorough and Biblically-sound manner." In the context of his preaching, he obviously also addressed the ecclesiastical sacraments in their proper order. Only the question of baptism still remained. Since, however, this sacrament was "given a special place and interpreted in unique ways by various sects," and since "great quarreling and even deadly persecution" had resulted over it, Gelthuser considered it "advisable and quite useful" to also study the Anabaptist writings on this issue. Subsequently, Gelthuser apparently visited Anabaptists known to him in Switzerland and asked if he could see their books. Since these Anabaptists, however, did not trust him and refused to put any of their literature at his disposal, Gelthuser looked around for other sources.
In the fall of 1581 he went "to Pillico in the Palatinate to settle some overdue accounts with his brothers-in-law." The fact that Gelthuser, who clearly came from Liestal, had several brothers-in-law at Billigheim in the Electoral Palatinate suggests that his wife, whose name we do not know, possibly came from there. What is of even more interest, however, is that on October 16, 1581 Gelthuser came to Billigheim to meet with an Anabaptist teacher named Maternus. The two apparently already knew each other since Maternus came to Billigheim specifically to visit Gelthuser and "to ask how he was getting along and where he now lived." On this occasion Gelthuser asked his Palatine Anabaptist acquaintances "whether they didn't have a book that the Anabaptists were using." Maternus immediately answered in the affirmative and mentioned Menno's Fundamentbuch. He further said that "the Anabaptists were in agreement in everything except the ban; on this point they could not agree. When Gelthuser asked Maternus whether he could borrow the book until the following Easter, Maternus readily agreed.
After his return to Murten on the evening of St. Martin's Day (November 11), Gelthuser studied Menno's extensive writings, apparently in great detail. As he did so, he even took pains to correct all the printing errors and to note these in longhand on five pages at the conclusion of the book.
At the end of February of the following year (1582), Gelthuser was preparing to return the Fundamentbuch to his Palatine acquaintances by Easter as promised. He charged a young student-whom Gelthuser had learned to know the previous fall on his return trip from the Palatinate-with this task. The young man was the son of the pastor of Gottstatt; he had lived in Gelthuser's house in Murten during the winter months. Interestingly, Gelthuser claimed that the reason the young man had stayed with him was to be instructed "in the medical arts," as he promised the young man's father. In the course of the winter this pastor's son came into conflict with the mayor of Murten because of his intemperate speech and behavior. For this he had received an apparently lengthy jail sentence. During this time, for unclear reasons, the young man developed a desire, following his release from prison, to teach in a school for the Anabaptists that was just about to open in Ramberg. He therefore asked his instructor and landlord Gelthuser to write him the necessary letter of recommendation "to the Anabaptists of Ramberg." At first Gelthuser turned down this request; instead, he offered to write a letter of reference gladly if the young man would agree "to enter the service of a master." But because the young man continued to insist, and likely also because Gelthuser had sympathy for the prisoner, Gelthuser actually wrote the requested letter on February 25, 1582. The pastor's son was then to deliver the letter together with the Fundamentbuch to the Anabaptist teacher Maternus in the Palatinate. It was probably the end of February or the beginning of March when the young man set out with his goods. That he never arrived at his destination was a fortunate turn of events for Anabaptist historical research. In any case, for Gelthuser, it marked the beginning of a dramatic and turbulent period of his life.
The young messenger had not even crossed the Bernese border when his lack of discretion again led him into complications. In a conversation with some clergy from the chapter of Nidau, he could not refrain from talking about the book he carried with him. This immediately aroused their curiosity and he could only watch as they confiscated the Fundamentbuch and the accompanying letter. Just a few days later a communiqu‚ arrived in Bern concerning this noteworthy contraband.
Already on Wednesday, March 14, 1582 Bern sent an order to Murten demanding that Gelthuser appear in Bern on the following Monday because of the Anabaptist book that "he had intended to send to Straáburg." The mayor immediately forwarded the order to Gelthuser but refused to tell him the precise reason for the summons, even when the pastor asked about it. In the meantime, Gelthuser strongly suspected on his own that something must have gone awry with the delivery of the book to the Palatinate. From Gelthuser's perspective-as became clear in his subsequent efforts to defend himself-events then unfolded as follows.
Because of an illness and inclement weather, Gelthuser decided not to travel personally to Bern, but to give a written account of himself regarding the confiscated Anabaptist book and the accompanying letter. While Gelthuser was busy composing the appropriate dossier for Bern, "a warning from a sympathetic patron" (warnung von einem vertruwten gönner) arrived. The message made clear "how the clergy involved the authorities in a bad game" with him and said that he would, therefore, "need to act carefully and with extreme caution."
With that information in hand, Gelthuser conferred on Sunday, March 18 with his pastoral supervisor Johannes Sybold of Kerzers to ask for his counsel. Sybold, however, did not want to give any specific advice but said somewhat evasively that Gelthuser might do well to be his own best counselor in a matter such as this. It become clear to Gelthuser that Sybold was well informed and that the others must have ordered him to remain silent about the matter. Apparently the mayor learned of Gelthuser's growing concerns and later that Sunday afternoon came with the pastor of the French-speaking church to visit him at the parsonage. When he found Gelthuser sick in bed, he urgently admonished him to go promptly to Bern. When Gelthuser replied that this was not possible because of his illness, mayor Wyttenbach could not contain himself any longer. He called Gelthuser an arch-heretic who not only read Anabaptist books but even presumed to improve on them. Beside himself with anger, he threatened to "help to eradicate with fire and sword this book of Menno's and all who are associated with it." If Gelthuser refused to go to Bern on his own, they "would force him to go even if he would have to be carried in his bed," or else he would have him taken to jail.
Intimidated by this, Gelthuser finally promised Wyttenbach that he would go to Bern the following day. At the same time the incident confirmed Gelthuser's worst fears. Later on Gelthuser claimed that he had indeed seriously considered going to Bern to set matters straight, since he knew that he never at any time had done anything wrong.
But at two o'clock the following night, a man named Jörg Pöttäng warned Gelthuser a second time that "he should not go to Bern because all the prisons and constables [bounty hunters] were waiting for him there and that the mood in Bern was very hostile." The trap had been sprung by the Bernese clergymen, and their verdict was already clear. Since Gelthuser clearly knew "what had happened to innocent people through such prejudices in the past," he opted finally against the trip to Bern and, for the moment, went into hiding.
Gelthuser's Flight to Solothurn (March 1582) and to the Klettgau Region (April to June 1582)
It was likely from a hiding place nearby that Gelthuser immediately appealed to Freiburg via the council of Murten and lodged a complaint about the local mayor: the mayor had threatened him and called him an Anabaptist simply because Gelthuser had returned an Anabaptist book to an acquaintance; on the basis of mere suspicions he was being removed as pastor! On March 23 the civil authorities in Freiburg decided to send for the mayor and to ask him to clarify matters in Bern.
Already on Tuesday, March 22 Wyttenbach, the mayor of Murten, informed Bern that he had indeed ordered Gelthuser to go to Bern, as requested, but that Gelthuser had evaded this command by fleeing to an Anabaptist physician in Solothurn. And, indeed, Gelthuser must have gone to Solothurn where he received treatment for five days. It is also possible that during this stay Gelthuser came into conversation with his friend and host about the best course to pursue. It may have been upon the advice of the Anabaptist physician that Gelthuser thereupon decided to become better acquainted with Anabaptism through personal observation. It remains unclear, for the moment at least, if he simply wanted to broaden his own knowledge and understanding of Anabaptism so that he could better argue against it later on. It is clear, however, that Gelthuser later used this argument to defend his behaviors to the cantonal authorities. One can only speculate about the extent to which Gelthuser harbored a genuine interest and sympathy for Anabaptism.
As Gelthuser was making a firm decision to become better acquainted with Anabaptism on location in Solothurn, the mayor of Murten proceeded to carry out an exhaustive raid on the parsonage, in which he "broke into the study with force and searched through Gelthuser's entire library." It appears that the search turned up additional Anabaptist writings and books, which prompted the authorities in early April to confiscate and sell all of Gelthuser's possessions. After paying all of his debts, the balance was to be given to his wife. Additionally, authorities in Freiburg decided to inform officials in Solothurn about the proceedings.
Their letter of April 10 was received in Solothurn with astonishment and was answered on Easter Day. The news of Gelthuser's sojourn in Solothurn, they reported, was "very surprising and disconcerting." Gelthuser had not been seen in the city since he had left the parsonage in Wangen; now, however, they would spare no energy to track him down and capture him so that he "would pay according to what he deserved." Strangely-or perhaps tellingly?-no trace of this incident can be found in the records. Yet the presence of an Anabaptist physician in the city could have been possible only through the beneficence of an influential patron. These circles must have protected this non-conformist once more.
After Gelthuser's wife also apparently lodged a complaint in Freiburg against the mayor, a letter arrived from her husband from the Klettgau region, in which he asked her to join him as soon as possible. Apparently with the permission of the authorities, Gelthuser's wife joined her husband. He apprised her of his effort to inform himself thoroughly about Anabaptist teachings and practices before applying for a position in the church.
"Not only [do I want to inform myself of those Anabaptists] living in these parts," he wrote, but much more of those who are in Austria and in Moravia, where every year people from all the German territories are led and misled. I have decided to undertake this so that later on I will be able to write and teach concerning holy baptism all the better and in more depth; after learning everything about what they do and what they refuse to do, I will be able to warn many people to beware of their falsehood and deception, and especially of the malevolence of the Hutterites, who maliciously deceive many thousands every year.
Gelthuser-and for part of this time his wife as well-stayed in Schaffhausen and in the Klettgau region for a total of ten weeks. During this time he himself pursued a medical practice, but on the side he also read extensively in Anabaptist writings, to which he apparently had access without any problem. It is also clear that wherever he went his reputation proceeded him as someone being persecuted by the Swiss Reformed authorities for his Anabaptist faith. As a result, this reputation opened many doors for him. "It was very advantageous for me," Gelthuser wrote, "that they already heard in advance how I had fallen from the good graces of the authorities because of an Anabaptist book and had to go into hiding because of it."
The "Study Trip" of Jacob Gelthuser and his wife to Moravia (1582)
Sometime in June of 1582 Gelthuser and his wife traveled to Moravia as planned, leaving behind some of their possessions in Schaffhausen. After visiting various Anabaptist groups in Moravia, the two returned to the Schaffhausen area, probably before winter set in. Here they wanted to sort through their impressions and experiences. From Pfullendorf they seem to have resumed contact once more with the Anabaptists of the Swiss-South German area.
On December 16, 1582 Gelthuser and his wife found their way to Zürich, where he immediately made contact with "several scholars," to whom he described his impressions and insights. His interlocutors were apparently deeply impressed with Gelthuser's presentation and believed that telling his story more broadly would make a significant contribution to the government's struggle against both local Anabaptism and the missionary activities of the Hutterian emissaries who were encouraging emigration to Moravia. Shortly thereafter Rudolf Gwalther, the Zürich superintendent, even took it upon himself to write a letter of intercession to the mayor of Murten on Gelthuser's behalf. Gelthuser also declared himself ready to write down all of his insights, "to describe everything and to have it printed and published throughout the entire German Nation!"
Gelthuser's Apologia (December 1582)
Of course, it was in Gelthuser's interest to justify and defend himself before the Bernese government. Since, however, "it could be quite dangerous to do this orally," Gelthuser busily set about to compose a written defense. Inasmuch as he likely did not have the needed peace or leisure for this in Zürich, Gelthuser apparently turned once again to his Anabaptist friend, the physician in Solothurn. On December 28, 1582 Solothurn informed Bernese authorities that Gelthuser had "found accommodations with a physician." By return mail Bern advised Solothurn to keep an eye on Gelthuser and to try to arrest him. Similar arrest orders were issued at the same time to Aarburg, Büren, Nidau, Gottstatt, Fraubrunnen, Landshut, Wangen, Bipp, Aarwangen, Aarburg, Biberstein, Königsfelden and Lenzburg.
Apparently because of rumors that had been set in circulation, Bern contacted Basel on the same day with the request that the authorities should: check all the printing shops to see if said Gelthuser is having something printed there that would be contrary to evangelical teachings or to the good reputation of my lords, and if they find anything, to suppress it and send the original copy to us.
It appears that Gelthuser had not yet been located or prosecuted by the authorities since, between December 29 and 31, he was able to compose a comprehensive seven-page statement of self-defense, which has already been cited several times above. The main concern of the Apologia was obvious: Gelthuser wished to free himself from the suspicion that he had converted to Anabaptism or that he had treated the Anabaptists sympathetically. Gelthuser emphasized repeatedly that his interest in learning to know more about Anabaptism had never implied a departure from the Reformed confession. To the contrary, his sole purpose had been to to warn others against Anabaptists, and to do so with greater competence and expertise. To illustrate his point, Gelthuser recounted in great detail the story of his first encounters with the Anabaptists, his search for Anabaptist literature, his trip to the Palatinate, his borrowing of Menno's Fundamentbuch, the foiled attempt to return the book, the order to appear in Bern, the conflict with the mayor of Murten, his flight to Solothurn and to the Klettgau region, his investigatory journey to Moravia and his return to Switzerland.
Gelthuser also did not miss the opportunity to point out to authorities that he did not undertake this venture arrogantly or flippantly. Rather, only "with the help of God had he been able to complete this dangerous, difficult, costly and long journey." Gelthuser summarized the results of his study trip by noting that he had "observed and experienced, read about and commented on, a wide variety of Anabaptist sects and groups, who varied greatly one from another." As a result, he now knew what he was talking about and warning against!
In the last and shortest section of his apology Gelthuser first reconfirmed his affirmation of the Second Helvetic Confession of 1566, which he said he had already affirmed under oath in 1572 and from which he did not intend to deviate in the future. Second, he defended himself against the accusation that he had attempted to improve upon-or offer an approval of-the confiscated Fundamentbuch by writing notes in its margin and at the end of the text. Gelthuser repudiated this as an absurd claim. Rather, it was a matter of: omissions, errors, or improvements, since some words had not been properly understood or had been overlooked when setting the type and which, after completing the book, were then noticed and included at the end of the book, which is a common practice, as learned people know.
With more good will and care, the people in Bern would have noticed this, Gelthuser continued. Shifting to a counter-attack, he claimed that they had read his "notes and corrections as if through a mirror of rage."
As for his confiscated letter to Maternus, the Anabaptist teacher in the Palatinate, Gelthuser said that never once in his writing did he refute the confession of faith in question. Rather, he had simply wanted to return the book to his acquaintance, as agreed upon, and to thank him for it.
Gelthuser was also very aware that it was probably the following sentence from the final paragraph that had not been understood: "I have learned much that is beneficial from this book," he had written; "may God grant that it will bear fruit in his time." Two things need to be said about this, Gelthuser continued. In the first place, the learned Bernese authorities would have done better "to send him [Gelthuser] secretly and in a friendly manner to the consistory or the theological faculty, and to let them examine and discuss these religious issues among themselves without making any more fuss about it."
However, Gelthuser was not content to stop with cautious criticism of the responsible ecclesiastical authorities in Bern. Rather, he launched out with even greater force by saying that church authorities in Bern had frequently handled similar issues in the past discreetly and with great success:
This is what our former pious elders and preceptors-Musculus, Hallerus, Weberus and Arelius-would have done, had they still been alive. But those who now wield authority in the House of God create such a scandal and a raucous fuss through the whole country since they and their "faithful" servants are inclined only to beat up and mishandle others, as the servant Mathej was wont to do on the 24th.
After this massive attack against his own ecclesiastical superiors, Gelthuser turned to his second point, attempting to explain the controversial sentence that was, to a large degree, most responsible for the problems that emerged: "I have learned much that is beneficial from this book; may God grant that it will bear fruit in his time."
According to Gelthuser, if they had only asked him, they could have quickly learned what his true convictions were. Gelthuser was of the firm opinion that:
I can learn something good and of value from all writings, even those that are contrary to our confession of faith; also what I have seen and experienced, especially among the various sects in Moravia, have served me as a strong warning to be on my guard against them [i.e., the Anabaptists] and to continue firmly and strongly in the true faith giving thanks to God most high.
In a manner remarkably frank for his time, Gelthuser was ready to test everything without fear of compromising his beliefs and, in good New Testament style, to hold to what was good, i.e., to draw from it conclusions that would be beneficial.
At the conclusion of his apology Gelthuser renewed the offer of his service to the Bernese authorities: And now I have arrived in this area of Switzerland again, as stated above, and I am again ready to be of service in a church or school, wherever there is the opportunity to proclaim our faith . . . if more information is desired of me, I will obediently supply it, orally or in writing.
This offer may have come as a surprise following his sharp criticism of the church authorities. One must remember, of course, that his apology was not submitted to the ecclesiastical authorities in Bern but to the political government. However, to the extent that these two authorities were intertwined, Gelthuser had little reason to hope that he could ever enter into the service of Bern again!
Gelthuser's imprisonment and trial in Bern (January 1583)
By January 4, 1583 the Bernese government was already in possession of Gelthuser's apology. According to an entry in the logbook of the council, Gelthuser's wife had brought the manuscript to Bern. After examining the document, the superior authority decided that "his wife should be informed that the authorities had not asked them to move away, nor did they want to tell them to return, and that he could come and go at his own discretion."
Whether Gelthuser then returned to Bern voluntarily or whether he was tracked down somewhere and put in prison is not clear from the extant documents. We do know, however, that he was imprisoned in Bern by at least January 18, 1583. On this day the Bernese authorities wrote to Murten, telling them that they had heard-probably during the course of the interrogation!-that Gelthuser "had something against holy baptism, that he had inserted something contrary to scriptures in the baptism book and that he had spread other improper remarks against the authorities." The mayor was expected to inform himself about the matter and to come directly to Bern to report on it.
A detailed entry in the tower registry of January 24, 1583 documents that Gelthuser was imprisoned in the "Insel" jail beginning sometime in the middle of January at the latest. In the extended trial that followed, Gelthuser was confronted with a long list of accusations, including illegal possession of Anabaptist literature, writing a letter to the Palatinate that showed outright friendliness towards the Anabaptists, disobedience in refusing to obey an order to appear in Bern, and writing and printing heretical documents. On the basis of all this evidence, Bern was convinced that in Gelthuser they were dealing with "an open Anabaptist and a seductive teacher." In light of all this they also demanded more information regarding the rumor that:
the Anabaptists in the Palatinate, in Moravia and in the surrounding area had the custom of holding a parliament (Rÿchstag) or a big meeting in Switzerland in May or before Easter.
We have already noted how Gelthuser explained the context for his trip to Moravia. Of even more interest here is the additional information regarding Anabaptism of this period-some of it highly informative and virtually unknown until now-that Gelthuser must have given to his judges either voluntarily or involuntarily. He denied the accusation that he himself had had any books printed:
This is not true. Yes, it was the case that an Anabaptist woman whom he attended in his capacity as a physician did own a Bible different from ours. This Bible did not contain the principium & finis, parentises [i.e., the beginning and the end, explanatory texts]. These books had been printed in Basel. He had admonished the woman for this and reproached her by saying that they [i.e., the Anabaptists] were greatly in error. Likewise it was not true that the Anabaptists in Thurgau had offered him money in payment for translating the Bible from Latin and Greek into an easily understood language. He himself had simply wanted to find out who had produced these books; the Anabaptists in Thurgau own such books.
Thanks to Gelthuser's concern to learn to know the Anabaptists not only through the writings of their theological opponents but also from their own books, we now learn additional new details. Authorities considered the texts found when Gelthuser's house in Murten was searched "to be those of the physician in Solothurn; he had copied from these writings, and from other books of an argumentative type so that he could respond to them."
Gelthuser emphasized here once more that all of these copies as well as his trip to Moravia and the various visits to Anabaptists en route: had only been undertaken so that he would be able to better oppose them in his writings and to counter their arguments on the basis of more accurate information; not that he desired to bring something new back into this land!
Gelthuser also made some interesting comments about the very successful journeys of the Hutterian emissaries to Switzerland, known to have begun in the early 1580s. Since this passage contains a great amount of information, a longer excerpt follows:
The situation is thus: Every year the Hutterites, who number a total of about 34,000, living in only 67 households, send six delegates to the Rhine, six to the Bregenzer Forest, six to Lake Constance and six to Switzerland. These missioners customarily come into our area in the spring, arriving in our country towards the end of March. Those who come to Switzerland, however, and especially those who come into Your Grace's territory [i.e., Bern] stay in Geysberg close to Lütwÿl and at an estate at Zofingen, where the husband is not an Anabaptist, but his wife is. There they hold meetings and conduct classes. Additionally, the missioners receive lodging in the county of Lenzburg from a landlord in Bülach, called Pangratz. This landlord has a brother who last year led 23 people from the dominion of Lenzburg on the Rhine to Moravia. Most important, however, the Anabaptists gather at Zofingen in the Baanacher region for preaching. One of the most important, best known and therefore most dangerous advocates of this seductive teaching is a Bernese subject commonly called Andreas Glur, an old man who resides at Wikon. At Schaffhausen the Anabaptists come to the inn called "Zum Schiff," where the innkeeper changes money for them. Hans Hotzj [Holzj?] of Altstetten had given him [i.e., Gelthuser] this information about meeting places and their locations. This Hotzj himself was one of the six missioners dispatched to Switzerland, and he knows very well that last year these emissaries infected approximately 600 individuals with this deceptive teaching and took them to Moravia!
At the very end of this hearing Gelthuser insisted yet again that he was not an Anabaptist and that "he had undertaken the trip to Moravia only for the above mentioned reasons, that is, to investigate their motives and arguments in order to better write against them [i.e., the Anabaptists] and to refute their articles of faith."
At the same time, however, he acknowledged that he was guilty, in that he had gone too far and done things from which he should have abstained. And for this reason he pleads most earnestly for gracious forgiveness from His Grace (i.e., the government), promising at the same time "to conduct himself in a manner beyond reproach in the future."
The entry in the dungeon registry concludes with these brief and laconic words: "Was exiled under oath from the city and from the canton."
A brief note in the Bernese city council's manual of the following day, January 25, confirms this decision: "Jacob Gelthuser, former associate pastor of Murten, was exiled from the city and the area of Bern under oath." Lenzburg was instructed to arrest without delay all the Anabaptists mentioned by Gelthuser who were under their administration.
Unfortunately it is not clear where Gelthuser and his wife went. Was Gelthuser later forgiven by the Bernese authorities and restored once again to his office as pastor? Or did Gelthuser turn to neighboring Reformed territories and take up a new life there? Did he place his hopes on Zurich, where the authorities were obviously more favorably inclined? And what were his further relationships with Anabaptism? Did he, in fact, become an active opponent of Anabaptism in his writings? If indeed, his writings-or even merely his conversations-were opposed to Anabaptism, and especially if he warned against moving to Moravia as he repeatedly said he had, then he might have lost all of these earlier contacts. Only a better and more comprehensive knowledge of the sources can answer these questions.
Additional information about the Anabaptist physician in Solothurn would be of special interest, for he clearly played a key role in the Gelthuser affair and seems to have been a central figure for an understanding of Anabaptism of that time. What was the nature of the relationship between him and Gelthuser after 1583? And in the event that Gelthuser was not reinstated as a pastor, did he then conceivably become more active in his second occupation, the healing arts?
This investigation began with an inquiry into the relationship between the Dutch Mennonites and Swiss Anabaptists. More precisely, it focused on the surprise appearance of the German edition of Menno's Fundamentbuch of 1575 in the South German-Swiss area. The Gelthuser story makes it clear that, by at least the early 1580s, the Anabaptists of the Palatinate regarded this publication as a legitimate representative summary of Anabaptist teachings that could also be passed on to outside inquirers. On the other hand, the Gelthuser incident does not speak to the question of how the Swiss Anabaptists evaluated Menno's theology. In this context we face the question of whether Gelthuser was possibly the writer of the earlier mentioned Bernese Codex, which contains copies of Menno's texts. A careful comparison of Gelthuser's handwriting with that of Codex 693 fails, unfortunately, to support this speculation. Gelthuser seems not to be the author of the copies in question.
To what extent did the Swiss Anabaptists know about Menno's Fundamentbuch in the early 1580s? If they had been less distrustful, could Gelthuser have obtained it from them, thus eliminating the need for his trip to the Palatinate?
The Anabaptist physician of Solothurn is of renewed interest. What Anabaptist writings were in his possession in the early 1580s? And which of these texts did he place at the disposal of Gelthuser so that he could study and copy them? Gelthuser declares that most of the Anabaptist writings found in his house in Murten came from this physician or from his collection of books. Accordingly, this exchange of literature would already have taken place before Gelthuser's flight.
While considering these books and copies, the interesting question of their possible present location must be raised: Where did the books and texts confiscated in Gelthuser's house in Murten end up? What happened to the copies and the books that originated with Gelthuser between the time he fled and his imprisonment? Did they fall into the hands of the Swiss authorities, too? And what happened to the Solothurn physician's holdings of Anabaptist writings, obviously an extensive collection?
There is hardly a doubt in my mind that an answer to these questions would bring us considerably closer to a clearer understanding of the nature of Swiss Anabaptism at the turn of the sixteenth to the seventeenth century. Furthermore, I think that that both Gelthuser and the physician of Solothurn were representatives of a group of individuals who were committed to dialogue and encounter that crossed confessional boundaries in an attempt "to test everything and to hold to what is good." It is unfortunate that this dialogue has hardly continued in a serious manner in the succeeding decades and centuries, neither at the initiative of the Reformed Church nor of the Anabaptists. - TRANSLATED BY GERHARD REIMER AND JOHN D. ROTH
* Hanspeter Jecker teaches at the Bienenberg Theological Seminary, Liestal, Switzerland. This essay first appeared in Mennonitica Helvetica 20 (1997), 33-56; it is reprinted here in a slightly revised form. Return to Text
 . These differences were more fundamental in matters of Christology, since the debated question concerned the relationship between the divinity and the humanity of Christ. Above all, these differences could be seen and felt in the practical debates within the church (Gemeinde) when dealing with excommunication and avoidance (Bann und Meidung). In this context the doctrine of incarnation and the practice of avoidance are obviously closely linked. The greater the emphasis among the Dutch Anabaptists on the purity of Christ as related to his godliness, the more rigorous the application of excommunication and avoidance. Both Christ as the Lord of the church, and the church as the bride of Christ, must be found without spot or blemish. The Upper German-Swiss Anabaptists, by contrast, advocated moderation in the practice of avoidance, especially if it involved the separation of marriage partners.-Heinold Fast, "Wie sind die oberdeutschen Täufer 'Mennoniten' geworden?" Mennonitische Geschichtsblätter 43/44 (1986/87), esp. 85ff. Return to Text
 . The German title of the corresponding letter dated January 23, 1559 is "Eine sehr gründliche Antwort voll von allerlei Unterweisungen und guten Ermahnungen, auf Zylis und Lemmekes unverdiente und lästerliche Ehrabschneidungen und Nachreden [...] von Menno Simons."-Menno Simons, Vollständige Werke (Aylmer, ON: Pathway Publishers, 1971), 401-08. Return to Text
 . For the Swiss Anabaptists maintaining this contact subsequently proved to be extremely important and beneficial at a very different undogmatic level. Regardless of existing theological differences, the Dutch Mennonites informed themselves increasingly about the continuing fate of their persecuted fellow believers in the South. Having achieved recognition and, to some extent, wealth and influence as members of their society, the Dutch Mennonites intervened repeatedly throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries with the Swiss authorities on behalf of their distressed fellow believers. Probably as a result of, and in the context of, this extensive aid, an intense-albeit quite unilateral-theological exchange resulted. Along with financial and material aid, the Dutch Mennonites increasingly send devotional literature and theological texts to the Alsace and Switzerland. The influence of these materials upon the brethren in the South must not be under-estimated. In the context of the origin of the Amish towards the end of the seventeenth century, at the very latest, some of the old theological differences crop up again.-Cf. articles by Hanspeter Jecker and Leonard Gross in Les Amish: origine et particularismes 1693-1993. Actes du colloque international de Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, 19-21 ao–t 1993 (Ingersheim : Association Française d'Histoire Anabaptiste-Mennonite, 1996), 202-26 and 227-52 respectively. Return to Text
 . See Burgerbibliothek Bern (BBBE), Codex Ms. 693. Cf. Heinold Fast, "Pilgram Marpeck und das oberdeutsche Täufertum," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 47 (1956), 241, and Fast, "Wie sind die oberdeutschen Täufer 'Mennoniten' geworden?" 93f. Return to Text
 . Surprisingly, Anabaptist research has barely paid attention to the happenings described in the following text. Clear reference to these in some older manuscripts has obviously passed unnoticed.-Cf., especially, Ernst Flückiger, "Reformation in der gemeinen Herrschaft Murten und die Geschichte der reformierten Kirche im Murtenbiet und im Kanton Freiburg," Gedenkschrift zur Murtner Reformationsfeier 1930 (s.l., s.a.), 117-20. Also, Heinrich Türler, "Aus dem ältesten Eherodel von Murten," Neues Berner Taschenbuch auf das Jahr 1904 (Bern: K. J. Wyá, 1903), 230ff. Return to Text
 . Hans Georg Wackernagel, ed., Die Matrikel der Universität Basel, 4 vols. (Basel, 1951), 2: 100. Cf. also the information about a theology student by the name of Isaac Gelthuser of Läufelfingen, possibly the brother of Jacob (see below) who also studied in Basel between 1558 and 1562.-Ibid., 117. Return to Text
 . Hans Gelthuser, a native (Lantkind) of Entfelden, also appears as Johannes Illfeld (also as Ylfeld, Elfeld or Entfelder) in contemporary sources. He was the illegitimate son of Rudolf Ricker, priest of Liestal, who served as pastor in Tenniken (Baselland) from 1527 to 1553. From 1522 to 1524 Hans Gelthuser (or Illfeld), served as schoolmaster in Liestal and as paster of Lausen, and from 1524 to 1541 as deacon and assistant pastor in Liestal; beginning 1536, simultaneously, also as pastor of Munzach und Frenkendorf-Füllinsdorf. Because of differences of opinion with the main pastor of Liestal, Johannes Bruwiler, Hans Gelthuser transferred to the Reformed pastorate at Läufelfingen.-Karl Gauss, Basilea Reformata (Basel, 1930), 90f, 128 and Karl Gauss, "Munzach-Ein verschwundenes Baselbieterdorf," Tagblatt der Landschaft (1930), 17ff., as well as Reiner Jansen, Munzach-Frenkendorf-Füllinsdorf. Geschichte einer Kirchgemeinde (Liestal, 1976), 25ff. He is already mentioned as assistant pastor of Aarau in 1543 and finally as pastor of Seon from 1544 to 1558.-Willy Pfister, Die Prädikanten des bernischen Aargaus im 16. - 18. Jahrhundert 1528-1798 (Zürich, 1943), 53 and 126. Return to Text
 . Staatsarchiv Basel-Land (StABL) Kirchen E9, Liestal 1, 211r. The Liestal registry of baptisms and marriages begins in 1542. The only "Agatha" mentioned (as a godmother) in the Liestal church registry for those years is Agatha Murerin (26v, 28v). Was she possibly Gelthuser's wife? Return to Text
 . The two most important sources for the following report are: (a) Apologia Iacobi Gelthuseri Liechtstalensis: das ist Warhaffter unnd grundtlicher bericht, welcher gstalt unnd Ursachen Er zu Murtten vertrieben worden, auch was durch Jhnne erkundiget: Neben bestendiger Glaubenserkantnus und bekantnus: Alls zu schirm der warheit hiebej Inn geschrifft gestellt. Annj 1582. Den 29 Decembris, Staaatsarchiv Fribourg (StAFR), Murtenbuch B, pp. 461-67 (hereafter, Apologia); (b) Protokoll des Verhörs von Jacob Gelthuser in Bern vom 24. Januar 1583 gemäss Eintrag im Turmbuch. StABE, Vol. 9, p. 445, 1r-6v (hereafter, Verhör). Return to Text
 . To date I have not satisfactorily succeeded in identifying this physician (although note the explanations at the end of this article). Concerning the presence of Anabaptist physicians in the Solothurn area, see Gotthold Appenzeller, "Solothurner Täufertum im 16. Jahrhundert," Festschrift Eugen Tatarinoff (Solothurn: Historischer Verein des Kantons Solothurn, 1938), 116f, and "Beiträge zur Geschichte des Solothurner Täufertums," Jahrbuch für Solothurner Geschichte, 14 (1991). For the topic in general, see Benno Flueler, "Ärzte, Apotheker, Chirurgen und Hebammen im alten Stande Solothurn 1481-1798," Jahrbuch für Solothurner Geschichte, 24 (1951), 1-89. Additional research is required to ascertain the relationship, as established for the year 1590, between the physician of Burgäschi to the "doctor" being sought in Solothurn in 1590s. Concerning the overall importance of Anabaptist physicians for the movement, see Hanspeter Jecker, Ketzer-Rebellen-Heilige. Das Basler Täufertum von 1580-1700 (Liestal: Verlag des Kantons Basel-Landschaft, 1998), 207-11. Return to Text
 . Beginning in the 1560s, Niklaus Zedo of Bümpliz was one of the most authoritative Anabaptist teachers in the Bern area. His radius of activity reached from the Oberland and the Emmental far into the Mittelland and included at the least also the areas of Solothurn and Friburg. Zedo was captured in 1575 for the first time, but was able to escape. Towards the end of 1580 he was incarcerated for a second time. The death sentence pronounced at first was not enforced, possibly because of public opinion, but also perhaps because of the hope that he might yet change his opinion. Indeed, Zedo showed signs of wanting to recant. In December 1580 he succeeded anew in fleeing.-Mennonitisches Lexikon, 4:586f. I have not been able to identify Köderli; is he possibly the same as Zedo? Return to Text
 . See the entry in the Murtener Kirchenbuch (StAFR RP 244, 33): "On May 13, 1578 I, Jacobus Gelthuserus of Liechstal [i.e. Liestal], was called to Murten as a German preacher, departing from Wangen on Tuesday June 3, arriving on Wednesday around five o'clock in the afternoon." Murten belonged to the area that was jointly administered by the cantons of Bern and Freiburg.-Roland Ruffieux, ed. Geschichte des Kantons Freiburg (Freiburg, 1981), 1:330ff. For Gelthuser cf. also Lohner, Die reformierten Kirchen und ihre Vorsteher, 509, also the article by Türler, "Aus dem ältesten Eherodel von Murten." Nevertheless, Gelthuser seems not to have felt very comfortable in Murten, for already on March 15, 1581 he applied for the vacant pastoral position at Munzach, a position his father had earlier held. In spite of the recommendations of Schultheiss and the council of Liestal, the authorities of Basel shortly thereafter gave preference to another applicant.-StABL L.2 Liestaler Amt, vol. 38, no. 1; Jansen, Munzach-Frenkendorf-Füllinsdorf, 26ff. Return to Text
 . There must have been at least one more meeting between Gelthuser and the Anabaptists at the beginning of his tenure in Murten. Apparently Gelthuser's acquaintance, Niklaus Zedo, the well known Anabaptist teacher, had a brother named Maritz (Moritz?) living in Murten, whom he visited occasionally, even after his own official banishment. During one of Niklaus Zedo's visits to Murten, Gelthuser was invited to this brother's house. Despite initial hesitation to accept this invitation, he finally agreed to go. Typically, Gelthuser did not inform the authorities about this incident, even though he knew very well that they were trying to locate Zedo. In any event, Gelthuser appears to have approached the Anabaptist teacher about this when he asked him, "warumb er, diewÿl er wüsse, wie sÿne Sachenn gestalltet, unnd das er ü.g. Statt unnd lannd nit bruchenn sölle, ü.g. Lannd durchwanndle, unnd widerumb Inn dz lannd komme" (why, even though he knew the state of his affairs, that he was not supposed to take advantage of the state, he yet continued to travel everywhere and return as he pleased).-Verhör, 2v. Return to Text
 . Apologia, 461 and Verhör, 2v. Melchior Mader (Mattern) of Oberingelheim can be traced as an Anabaptist in the Palatinate as late as 1590 and 1603.-Quellen zur Geschichte der Täufer, vol. 4: Baden und Pfalz (Gütersloh, 1951), 232 and 238f. Return to Text
 . Hans Herli was pastor of Gottstatt (on the Aare River between Biel and Büren) from 1580 to 1583; he was removed in 1583.-Lohner, Die reformierten Kirchen und ihre Vorsteher, 492. Return to Text
 . It is not clear where Gelthuser acquired this medical knowledge. On the other hand, his activities as a physician might be one reason for his acquaintance with the Anabaptist doctor in Solothurn. Gelthuser's special interest in the healing arts likewise is obvious from numerous references in the church registry of Murten, with comments about official acts relating to physicians, barbers or managers of baths.-Türler, "Aus dem ältesten Eherodel von Murten,"232f. Return to Text
 . StASO Freiburgschreiben AF 9.3., pp. 53ff. The fact that Gelthuser addressed this letter of recommendation to Maternus suggests that the Anabaptist "Schull der Jugend," i.e., school for the young people, was probably planned for a location close to where Maternus lived or that it already existed there. Ramberg possibly refers to the village by that name located a few kilometers to the northwest of Landau. It is of interest that this young man had already appropriated Anabaptist ideas to the extent that Gelthuser requested Maternus to have his community of faith test the young man from Gottstatt to determine "to what extent, over time, he becomes one of you and devoted to you." For the whole background cf. Verhör, 3v and Apologia, 462. Return to Text
 . Johannes Sybold, earlier pastor at Mett (1559ff.) and Frauenkappelen (1564f.), served in Kerzers between 1565 and 1587. During the final years of his life (1587-1595) he was pastor of Wohlen, the last five years as dean of the chapter of Büren. Return to Text
 . StAFR Ratsmanuale (RM), 123, 200 and 213f. The writing from Freiburg includes, along with the actual missive, a copy of the letter from Gelthuser to Maternus as a supplement.-STASO, Freiburgschreiben AF 9.3, 53-55. Return to Text
 . StASO Missiven AB 1.40., pp. 53f. Possibly Johann Jacob vom Staal, state secretary for Solothurn for many years, was one of the protectors of certain Anabaptists. Well known from earlier times are his contacts with certain Dutchmen from the vicinity of David Joris at the Birtishof in the Beinwilertal at Passwang.- Paul Burckhardt, "David Joris," Basler Biographien (Basel: Freunde vaterländischer Geschichte, 1900), 1:105 and 154); cf. also the edition of Liber Amicorum des Johann Jacob von Staal by Rolf Max Kully and Hans Rindisbacher). As recorder of the council and writer of the missives of that time, he may well have played a not insignificant role in influencing the council on which actions to pursue and which to abandon. Return to Text
 . Gelthuser mentions a certain "Martti Alben" to whom the baggage had been entrusted. Is he possibly the innkeeper of 'Zum Schiff,' well known money changer for transient Anabaptists?-Verhör, 4v and 6r. Return to Text
 . Death dates of the following: Berchtold Haller, the Bernese reformer, 1536; Wolfgang Musculus (Müslin), professor of theology, 1563; Benedict Aretius (Marti), 1574; Johannes Waeber, pastor at the Münster church, 1574. Return to Text
 . Reference could be to the following edition: "Das gantz Neüwe Testament / grundtlich und wol verteutschet / nach Hebreischer / Griechischer und Latinischer sprach. Auch gezieret mit viel schoenen und notwendigen Concordantzen. Gedruckt zu Basel / durch Brylingers erben / im jar.1579." It seems that none of the specialists in Anabaptist Bibles knew about this printing. It was only after a copy of this edition was discovered at the Mennonite Historical Library in Goshen in 1979 that a short description of it appears in the relevant literature.-David Luthy, "Anabaptist Testaments and the 'Lord's Prayer,'" Family Life (June, 1980), 20; Isaac Zürcher, "Die Täuferbibeln," Informationsblätter 6 (1983), 28f. This is all the more surprising inasmuch as the copy found in Goshen can by no means claim to be the only known copy in existence. The university library in Basel has a long-forgotten copy of this edition at its disposal under the catalog number "FR.-GR. A VIII 35." More information on this appears in Jecker, Ketzer-Rebellen-Heilige, 141. Return to Text
 . Probably the hamlet of Geissberg between Schmidrued and Schlossrued about 7 kilometers southwest of Leutwil or it could be referring to fields or farms named Geisshof (close to Gontenschwil) or Geissbühl (close to Oberkulm), both likewise in the immediate vicinity west of Leutwil. Return to Text
 . This kind of centralizing function in the context of midland Anabaptism of that time most likely applies to the hamlet of Finsterthüelen located to the east of Oftringen.-Cf. Hanspeter Jecker, "'Zum ersten vor unser eigen Thüren wüschen.' Hans Jacob Boll's Mahnschrift von 1615 wider die Täuferverfolgungen," in Michael Erbe, et.al, Querdenken. Dissens und Toleranz im Wandel der Geschichte. Festschrift Hans R. Guggisberg (Mannheim, 1996), 347-62. Also Annelies Hüssy, Oftringen: Die Geschichte eines Dorfes (Oftringen, 1994). For an overview see also the index of place names in Jecker, Ketzer-Rebellen-Heilige, 270-334, 658-64. Return to Text
 . Andreas Glur of Birrwil already had an official position in Aarburg in the 1570s. He was imprisoned in 1580, however, and taken to Bern.-Jakob Heiz, Die Täufer im Aargau (Aarau, 1902), 164. He must have gotten free again. He (his son?) and his wife are again listed as Anabaptists in the Chorgerichtsmanual, Staatsarchiv Aargau, Aarburg Kirchenbücher, Chorgerichtsmanual, 1576-1603, 202f. Return to Text
 . The identity of this person and his place of origin are unknown to me. Does it refer to Altstätten in the Rhine valley of Sankt Gallen or to Altstetten close to Zürich? And is there possibly a kinship connection to the leader of earlier Zürich Anabaptism, Hans Hotz von Grüningen?-Cf. the diverse references in the Personenregister, or index of names, in QGTS I, II and IV, and also ML 2:351f. Return to Text
 . In Murten they already looked for a successor to Gelthuser by the end of April 1592 (StAFR Murtenbuch B, 479). Subsequently Peter Schnell, previously pastor at Grindelwald, was installed.-Lohner, Die reformierten Kirchen und ihre Vorsteher, 509. Return to Text
 . Flückiger, "Reformation in der gemeinen Herrschaft Murten,"mentions the parish of Kulm in Aargau, beginning 1582, as Gelthuser's later field of work. Flückiger probably used Lohner, Die reformierten Kirchen und ihre Vorsteher, 509, as his source. This information appears incorrect. According to Pfister, Die Prädikanten des bernischen Aargaus, 97, Emanuel Kissling was the pastor in Kulm until 1583. However, Jacob Gelthuser did not succeed Kissling beginning in February 1583; instead it was the same Johannes Bullinger who had been called to Wangen five years earlier to succeed Gelthuser and had since then officiated there. Return to Text
 . Is Gelthuser possibly the author of the memorandum opposing emigration to Moravia, dated 1583, of which there is a copy in the Zürcher Zentralbibliothek (Ms. A 72, pp. 371-381 and Ms B 163, No. 11)? Return to Text
 . Fast, "Pilgram Marpeck und das oberdeutsche Täufertum," 241, had earlier suspected that Codex 693 might have been written by the same person as were the various entries in the inside covers of the Kunstbuch (Codex 494), which are possibly by a later owner of the book by the name of "Jacob." On the basis of recent, more careful handwriting analyses, Fast is more hesitant on this matter (letter from Fast dated Nov. 2, 1996). I am inclined to believe that Jacob Gelthuser left traces of his handwriting neither in the copies of Menno's writings contained in Codex 693 nor in the inner covers of Codex 494. Return to Text
 . Some of the diverse Anabaptist codices from around 1600 could have something to do with this, especially since some are stored in archives and libraries in Bern. Because of space, I shall not go into detail about the truly astonishing connections and cross references of content and personnel of some of the Anabaptist manuscripts located in Bern and elsewhere. As one significant example, an Anabaptist physician also plays a key role: Hans Jacob Boll who is, unfortunately, virtually unknown.-Jecker, Ketzer-Rebellen-Heilige, 270-334 which goes well beyond what I said about Boll in my earlier essay. Return to Text
 . Perhaps this readiness for dialogue by at least some of the Anabaptists is clearly related to the existence and the continuing influence of Marpeck's circles, which seem to have been present into the early 1600s.-Jecker, Ketzer-Rebellen-Heilige, 326 and Arnold Snyder, "The (Not-So) 'Simple Confession' of the Swiss Brethren. Part I: Manuscripts and Marpeckites in Age of Print," MQR 73 (October, 1999), 677-722 and the second part of his essay with the sub-title "The Evolution of Separatist Anabaptism" published elsewhere in this issue of MQR. 24 The Mennonite Quarterly Review 31 Test Everything - Hold Fast to What is Good 7
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