In the summer of 1993, what has become known as the South Sand Hill Savanna was surveyed for remnant native plants. Sparse populations of butterfly milkweed, round-headed bush clover and little bluestem grass where in the scattered openings amidst trees and shrubs invading beneath the scattered broad-canopied black oak. In the fall of 1993 work was begun to remove the woody understory. Periodic prescribed burning was initiated in the spring of 1994. Periodic follow-up brush control has been done by cutting and treating the stumps with a systemic herbicide to stop resprouting. Burning continues on about a three-year cycle. Continuous post-burn event monitoring and control has mostly eliminated the invasive non-native forage species, sweet clover. This is accomplished by cutting the herbaceous biennial during its flowering stage to stop it from producing seed. Wild lupine, a black oak savanna endemic flower species, was reintroduced as planted plugs in May 2005

S. Sand Hill Savanna, view NW, before woody vegetation (autumn olive still green) control (Nov. 1993)

S. Sand Hill Savanna, first prescribed burn after initial control of woody shrubs (April 1994)

S. Sand Hill Savanna, view NW, after 1994 prescribed burn (July 1995)


S. Sand Hill Savanna, view North, after thinning canopy to favor remnant black oak and several prescribed burns (July 2005)

Wild lupine introduced (2005) on the S. Sand Hill Savanna (June 2010)