APA Style

The final authority for APA is the American Psychological Association, specifically the Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., 2010). The final authority for the bibliographic form used in your paper is your professor.


Reference List:


Coltrane, S. (1998). Gender and families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Journal article:

Egan, S. E., & Perry, D. G. (2001). Gender identity: A multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 37(4), 451-464.

Fulltext journal article from a database:

Article with doi assigned (digital object identifier)

Day, K. (2001). Constructing masculinity and women's fear in public space in Irvine, California. Gender Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 8(2), 109-128. doi:10.1037/0002

Article with no doi assigned (digital object identifier)

First use crossref.org free doi lookup to find the doi and cite as in the above example. If no doi is available, database names may be given for material of limited circulation (APA, 6th edition).

Hager, M. H. (2007). Therapeutic diet order writing: Current issues and considerations. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 22(1), 28-36. Retrieved from CINAHL-FT database.


Lazarus, M., & Wunderlich, R. (Producers). (2000). Beyond killing us softly: The strength to resist : The impact of media images on women and girls. [Videotape]. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Documentary Films.

Essay in a multivolume work (each volume with a unique title):

Bloom, L. Z. (1985). Maya Angelou. In T. M. Davis & T. Harris (Eds.), Dictionary of literary biography: Vol 38. Afro-American writers after 1955: Dramatists and prose writers. Detroit: Gale.

Excerpt from a source reprinted in multivolume work:

Neubauer, C. E. (1993). Maya Angelou: Self and a song of freedom in the southern tradition. In J. P. Draper (Ed.), Contemporary literary criticism (Vol. 77, pp. 130-131). Detroit: Gale. (Reprinted from Southern women writers: The new generation, pp. 114-42, by T. B. Inge, Ed., 1990, Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P).

Web site:

Sime, W. E. (1997). Stress management: A review of principles. Retrieved October 16, 2001, from http://www.unl.edu/stress/mgmt/

Biblical citation:

According to the APA Publication Manual (2010), reference entries are not needed for the Bible and other major classical works.  However, your professor may require full publication information; if you are not sure, ask him/her.

In-Text Citations:

  • Include the author's last name with the year, e.g., (Coltrane, 1998)
  • Include the page number if quoting directly, e.g., (Coltrain, 1998, p. 33)
  • If there is no author, use one or two words of the title, e.g., ("Afro-American," 1985)
  • If there are multiple works by the same author, use lowercase letter assigned to the year in the reference list, e.g., (Lazarus, 2000b)
  • When a book has two authors, use both names and the year, e.g, (Day & Neubauer, 2001)
  • Biblical in-text citations: identify the version you used, in the first in-text citation; for example:  (2 Cor. 5:17 New International Version)


More Resources:

Note also the following books the Reference Room of our library. All of these plus more are located on the counter top at the north end of the Reference Room and labeled "Style Guides."
  • Maimon, E. P., Peritz, J. H., & Yancey, K. B. (2009). A writer's resource: A handbook for writing and research ( 2nd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. (Ref PE 1408 .M3366 2009)
  • American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: APA. (Ref BF 76.7 .P83 2010)

Updated 17-Dec-2009 SWH