January - February 2001
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Posted on 27 January 2001 for Art for Children students, Goshen College,
Marvin Bartel, Inst.
Course Documents. Some lecture notes will be posted
Access these from the
College On Campus
home page. This may be a file that is too large for
a home computer modem, but it will be fast if you are on campus.
The files can be placed on a diskette and taken home to review if you wish.
However, if you do not have the Powerpoint on the home computer, it may
page from the Getty Center has references to teaching art lessons related
to Romare Bearden.
Why are drawing and modeling
essential developmental learning tasks?
Art is a unique way of knowing
Art is a unique way of feeling
How are drawing and clay modeling
skills and behaviors cultivated?
are drawing and clay modeling behaviors cultivated?
Good ways to do it
How NOT to cultivate drawing
and modeling behaviors
Motivate accretion - make passive
Provide: materials - places - times - positive feedback
Provide experience/observation activities - discuss
observations - ask observational questions - construct memories and a knowledge
base - enter the data
Motivate accretion - make passive knowledge active (using
questions that add remembered details without telling them the answers).
Use if drawing is
Use if drawing is finished
without much thinking - impulsive child
Use if child is unsure of self and needs HELP getting
started - deliberate child
draw for them but teach them
how to see and draw
use subjects for which the child has had experience
or subjects that the child can observe while drawing
have them practice using materials - do not demonstrate
the subject being drawn
discuss the subject being created
follow the edge of the thing with your finger on the
use questions for accretion
ask them for ideas and options
encourage practice on another paper
before adding their name and title
Respect the child's creative
Do not make any marks on their pictures
cultivate aesthetic decision making
reinforce child's ownership
when adding written comments and questions (assessing
and grading the work), use tracing overlay, post-its, or back side of work.
Respect the student's art.
not to do
Avoid coloring books (workbook activity?)
Avoid dot to dot activities
Avoid copy work
Avoid examples unless shown after the creative work
Avoid demonstrations unless essential - and then follow
to Cultivate Artistic Behavior
an idea **
We can teach how to get ideas for art.
Artists find content in these sources:
Nature and constructed environment
inner feelings, imagination
quest for order, universal themes
Practice with materials and ideas - rehearse it -
Observation, make visual studies
Change of work habits - a good way to insure new learning
- new ways to see
Exploration of meanings, symbolism - often very motivational
- promotes caring about . . .
Consideration of purposes and means - deals with function
of something - what is it for?
Does it celebrate, commemorate, contain, disseminate, convince, entertain,
amuse, organize, design, and so on? Artwork has many roles to play in our
world. Without the arts we would lack the best ways to express love, grief,
joy, and many of the most important aspects of life.
Control (practice and develop media skills)
Execution in a Medium**
to create with materials) - art making methods
Adaptation (change ideas in order to make them fit
Selection (pick a material that works for the idea)
Experimentation (teachers can guide experimentation)
This can be a way to solve specific problems (look at options before
the main work)
This can be a way to learn a repertoire of methods to use
- talking about art
Assess it and learn
61, Laura Chapman.
Approaches to Art in Education.
Brace Jovanovich, NY
Study similar examples
from other cultures and/art history
it and learn from it
Read the work. Find out what others see in it. "What
do you see first?" Why?
Talk about the work
causes effects like emphasis, motion, depth, and so on?
- what does it mean/feel? why was it done?
similar examples from other cultures and art history
Discuss in the context of the media experience as a
frame of reference for understanding the artist's motivations and meanings
Study work that deals with the same art concepts, social
issues, or material/methods learned in the production
Art Education - DBAE ?
The four discipines expected in the art curriculum:
Art History, Aesthetics