Class Notes

January - February 2001

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Posted on 27 January 2001 for Art for Children students, Goshen College, Marvin Bartel, Inst.
Updated 2-1-01

Also see Blackboard/CourseInfo ,  for Discussion , and Course Documents.  Some lecture notes will be posted there. Access these from the Goshen College On Campus home page. This may be a file that is too large for a home computer modem, but it will be fast if you are on campus.  The files can be placed on a diskette and taken home to review if you wish.  However, if you do not have the Powerpoint on the home computer, it may not open.

  • Why are drawing and modeling essential developmental learning tasks?
    • Art is a unique way of knowing
    • Art is a unique way of feeling
  • How are drawing and clay modeling skills and behaviors cultivated?
  • What other artistic behaviors can be cultivated?

  • Drawing and modeling are only two art processes.
  • How many traditional processes and materials can we list?

The following Art Informs History lesson page from the Getty Center has references to teaching art lessons related to Romare Bearden.

How are drawing and clay modeling behaviors cultivated? Good ways to do it
  • Provide: materials - places - times - positive feedback
  • Provide experience/observation activities - discuss observations - ask observational questions - construct memories and a knowledge base - enter the data
  • Motivate accretion - make passive knowledge active (using questions that add remembered details without telling them the answers).
How NOT to cultivate drawing and modeling behaviors
  • DO NOT draw for them (you need them to show you how)
  • DO NOT make any marks on their pictures (get their input on name and title placement)
  • DO NOT use - examples - demonstrations - patterns - tracing - coloring books - copy work

  • DO Provide experience/observation activities
    ask observational questions

  • discuss observations
  • construct memories
  • construct a knowledge base - enter the data
  • use preliminary practice - rehearse before the performance
  • encourage planning - thinking - anticipation

Motivate accretion - make passive knowledge active
  • Use if drawing is SMALL on LARGE paper
  • Use if drawing is finished quickly without much thinking - impulsive child
  • Use if child is unsure of self and needs HELP getting started - deliberate child
  • DO NOT draw for them but teach them how to see and draw
  • use subjects for which the child has had experience or subjects that the child can observe while drawing
  • have them practice using materials - do not demonstrate the subject being drawn
  • discuss the subject being created
  • follow the edge of the thing with your finger on the object
  • use questions for accretion
  • ask them for ideas and options
  • encourage practice on another paper

Respect the child's creative ownership Do not make any marks on their pictures

ask permission and placement advice before adding their name and title

cultivate aesthetic decision making

reinforce child's ownership

when adding written comments and questions (assessing and grading the work), use tracing overlay, post-its, or back side of work. Respect the student's art.

Things not to do

  • Avoid Patterns
  • Avoid Tracing
  • Avoid coloring books (workbook activity?)
  • Avoid dot to dot activities
  • Avoid copy work
  • Avoid examples unless shown after the creative work
  • Avoid demonstrations unless essential - and then follow with immediate hands-on practice

Ways to Cultivate Artistic Behavior
Sequence or Phases

Inception of an idea **

We can teach how to get ideas for art.
Artists find content in these sources:
  • Nature and constructed environment
  • inner feelings, imagination
  • quest for order, universal themes
  • ordinary experience
Elaboration and Refinement **
  1. Practice with materials and ideas - rehearse it -
  2. Observation, make visual studies
  3. Change of work habits - a good way to insure new learning - new ways to see
  4. Exploration of meanings, symbolism - often very motivational - promotes caring about . . .
  5. Consideration of purposes and means - deals with function of something - what is it for?
    1. Does it celebrate, commemorate, contain, disseminate, convince, entertain, amuse, organize, design, and so on? Artwork has many roles to play in our world. Without the arts we would lack the best ways to express love, grief, joy, and many of the most important aspects of life.
  • Execution in a Medium** (learning to create with materials) - art making methods
Control (practice and develop media skills)

Adaptation (change ideas in order to make them fit the material)

Selection (pick a material that works for the idea)

Experimentation (teachers can guide experimentation)

This can be a way to solve specific problems (look at options before the main work)
This can be a way to learn a repertoire of methods to use

  • Assess it and learn from it
also called art criticism - writing - talking about art
  • Study similar examples from other cultures and/art history
** from page 61, Laura Chapman. Approaches to Art in Education. 1978. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, NY Criticism
Assess it and learn from it
  • Read the work. Find out what others see in it. "What do you see first?" Why?
  • Talk about the work
description - what is there?
analysis - what causes effects like emphasis, motion, depth, and so on?
interpretation - what does it mean/feel?  why was it done?

Study similar examples from other cultures and art history

  • Study work that deals with the same art concepts, social issues, or material/methods learned in the production
Discuss in the context of the media experience as a frame of reference for understanding the artist's motivations and meanings

What is Discipline Based Art Education - DBAE ?
The four discipines expected in the art curriculum:
Production, Criticism, Art History, Aesthetics