for making Art (35 mm) Portfolio Slides and Digital
Images for Web Pages
35 mm Single Reflex Camera (manual
with built in meter
Film: Professional Ektachrome
(tungsten) ISO 64 or 160 film
Kodachome ISO 64
Echtachrome ISO 64 (can
process quickly by local photo labs, but is not as good as Kodachrome)
If daylight film is used with tungsten
correction would be needed on the camera lens using a blue filter #80B.
With daylight film, some feel that the color is best in direct sun,
others recommend open shade for less glare. In open shade it is
to get a blue bias from the sky. A white reflector (not a mirror) might
be the best indirect diffuse daylight source option if using sunlight.
Do not try to use fluorescent light, as it is too hard to get
2 - Tungsten (3200 K, Type "B") photo
flood bulbs - OR - simple flood lamps with clips
Halogen lights nearly the same as sunlight
* Manual control = can
shutter speed and aperture independently
Setting up Artwork
Place flat art work on flat neutral
(clean black mat board can be used. Securing devices such as tacks,
tape etc. should be kept out of sight. Keep flat as possible.
Option - Smaller flat work can be
Camera and Film
Place film into camera in low light.
Secure camera to tripod (or copy stand
work). Have adequate space around tripod base so it can be easily moved
in any of the four directions.
Attach cable release to camera.
Never use flash because of glare
CAUTION: Hot photoflood filaments are
broken. They burn out if moved when hot. Allow to cool a few minutes
removing from lamps or moving. They are also fire hazards if placed
materials that burn.
Metering and Making the
Place photo floods to left and right
at a low angle so that light is evenly distributed over the whole work.
Keep lamps at a low angle to prevent glare (reflection) from art
but far enough away so as not to create a "bright spot" on the work.
3-d work should be placed on an
which curves up from the table or floor (no wall floor seam) with "key
light" coming from top at 45 degree angle and fill light from other
To soften the light, the light can be reflected from a white surface or
diffusing material can be used in the path of the light to create a
Washable dulling spray is sometimes
used on high
gloss surfaces to temporarily make them mat for the photo.
Sometimes shade is placed so that less
hits the background. This makes 3-d work appear to project forward in
Hold the gray card just in front of
holding camera lens close to card, read meter and adjust shutter as
For flat work set aperture wide open,
of field is not a large factor. You can adjust shutter speed
if you focus carefully.
For 3-d work, use a small enough
aperture to include
the whole depth of field needed to include everything at sharp focus.
or F22 is suggested. Use enough light so that exposure times are not
than 2 seconds at F/16.
Take one photo at the metered setting,
i.e., shoot another at one shutter speed
and another one at one shutter speed
than meter indicates while keeping the aperture constant.
This insures one exact exposure.
- It is a best to take enough slides
of each work
to meet the number of slides needed. Always take more than you think
will need! Copy slides are almost always inferior and colors will not
Kodachrome must be sent and processed
regional Kodak processing center
Rewind film, store in film container
and keep refrigerated
Echtachrome films can be processed
fast (some as
quickly as a few hours) by good local photo processing businesses.
This will take at least 10 -14
Either take to local store or mail in
direct to a Kodak processing center (mailers can be purchased through
catalogue mail order houses).
of Your Artwork
Three ways to get
Use a digital camera.
Check out a
camera from ITS.
Use tripod and cable
If camera does not accept a cable release, use the 10 second delay so
camera is steady.
- Scan slides using a
Both slide and flat bed scanners are in the Mac Lab.
Scanning prints with a
flat bed scanner
is possible, but does not give quite the same quality. You can get
quality if you have use the negatives in the film scanner.
Use the camera's best resolution mode,
in .jpg mode
Set up work and lighting the same as
above for film
Turn off the automatic flash
Preview images while everything is set
up so adjustments
and retakes can be made until everything looks right
Digital camera images are generally
saved in the
camera at a resolution of 72 dpi, but the images are much larger than
as web page illustrations. See #2 in Enhancing and Savinge below.
Set the resolution high enough to
enlarge the image
and still have high enough resolution after enlarging.
Web page images are posted at a
resolution of 72
dpi (dots per inch or pixels per inch). Higher resolutions should
not be posted because monitors do not display the finer
and finer resolution makes tehe images very slow to download for
using a modem.
Web page images should fit within
monitors so browers
are not forced to scroll too much.
An image 8 inches wide might be a
This about 7 times as wide as a horizontal slide.
If a web page needs an image that is 7
large as a piece of 35 mm film, the scanning resolution of the slide or
film needs to be about 7 times 72. This is about 500 dpi
ppi) when scanning.
If you want to produce a CD portfolio,
3 or 4 times as high would be fine. This would allow for better quality
printouts as well.
More complete instructions for using
at Goshen College are at this link.
Digital Photo Files
While saving images that are "in
process" do not
compress the image, but keep it at 10 (in .jpg format) or save it in
uncompressed .psd Photoshop format.
In Photoshop use Image, and
Image Size to
stipulate both the size and the resolution of the image file.
Once you have finished all the
cropping, color adjustments,
sharpening, contrast and brightness adjustments, sizing, and so on, use
Save As to make a .jpg file (for web pages). Gif format can be
but it is more appropriate for hard edge flat color and graphics. Jpg
better for continuous tone photos.
While using Save As in .jpg
you select the degree of compression with 0 being maximum compression
loading web page image) and 10 being maximum quality (slower loading
Since small files load much faster on
a remote web
browser's computer, compress the imagers enough so that no single
are larger than about 50k in size. Look at file sizes by viewing as a
on your disk folder.
Digital Photo Files
often take a less than perfect image. The following is list of
commands to try before you save it for a web page.
Mask, set threshold to 3 and radius 1.0 and slide the sharpen slider
it looks best.
information at this link.
your Web Pages
Be careful about placing more than one
a web page. It could take too long for the page to load and some
with hit the stop button rather than wait.
Many web sites are designed
using a page of
very small thumbnail images used as links to larger versions.
gives the viewer a choice. Click
to see an example.
For more information click this link
to the Goshen