Education

Christie Bonfiglio, Department Chair, Associate Professor of Education, Director of Special Education
Suzanne Ehst, Adjunct Professor of Education
Kevin Gary, Associate Professor of Education, Director of Secondary Education
Tony Hurst, Adjunct Professor of Education
Cathy Metcalfe, Adjunct Professor of Education
Kathy Meyer Reimer, Professor of Education
Cynthia Padgett, Adjunct Professor of Education
Karen Yoder, Associate Professor of Education, Director of Elementary Education

Introduction

Goshen College seeks to graduate teachers who are adept at integrative learning, for intercultural, research-driven practice. Goshen College is authorized by the State of Indiana to prepare teachers for elementary and secondary schools. The Goshen College Teacher Education Department is accredited by the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE www.ncate.org). It was first accredited in 1954. This accreditation covers initial teacher preparation programs at Goshen College. However, the accreditation does not extend to individual education courses that the institution offers to K-12 educators for professional development, re-licensure, or other purposes.

An important part of Goshen’s Teacher Education program is learning first-hand in the schools. Students will work in a variety of settings with diverse populations. If a Study Service Term (SST) is part of the international education experience, students will also have the opportunity to work with children or youth in another culture during SST.

School systems in the area cooperate with Goshen College to provide strong and varied student teaching experiences. Pre-service teachers experience a broad spectrum of classroom situations. During the student teaching experience, students will work 12 or more weeks full time in a local school system and will be supervised by classroom teachers and college professors. After satisfactorily completing an approved teaching program and the Praxis II exam, students will apply and be recommended for licensure. Visit the education department website at www.goshen.edu/education.

Education programs available:

Elementary education (K-6)

Upon completion of a major in elementary education, pre-service teachers are eligible to be certified to teach kindergarten through sixth grade. Fieldwork takes place in a variety of classroom settings where pre-service teachers learn to teach language arts, math, social studies, science, art, physical education and music. Approaches to classroom management, discipline and evaluation are also explored.

Elementary education/Special education (K-6)

Goshen offers certification in Exceptional Needs: Mild Intervention for K-6 in conjunction with an elementary education certificate. It is a certification that must be completed simultaneously, since Exceptional Needs does not stand alone as a separate program. To complete this program, 12 additional hours (Student Teaching: Exceptional Needs, Special Education Issues, Mild Disabilities I, and Mild Disabilities II) are added to the elementary education program.

Elementary education/English learners(K-6)

Goshen offers certification in English Learners for K-6 in conjunction with an elementary education certificate. To complete this program, 14 additional hours (Introduction to Linguistics, The English Language, English Grammar, Methods of Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages and TESOL practicum) are added to the elementary education program.

All-grade education in English learners, music, physical education or visual arts (K-12)

All-grade education focuses on a major in the content area while including requirements for general and professional education at all developmental levels.

Secondary education (5-12)

Pre-service teachers can be certified to teach 5th through 12th graders upon completion of teacher education requirements for teachers of early adolescence, adolescence and young adults and content requirements in the chosen field of instruction. Goshen offers teaching majors in:

  • Business
  • Chemistry
  • English/Language Arts
  • English Learners (EL)
  • Journalism
  • Life Sciences
  • Life Science and Chemistry
  • Mathematics
  • Music: Vocal and/or Instrumental
  • Physical Education
  • Physical Education/Health
  • Physical Sciences
  • Physics
  • Social Studies (with a major in history)
  • Spanish
  • Theater Arts
  • Visual Arts

Special attributes of Goshen’s teacher education program


1. Elementary and exceptional needs dual certification program - Nationally, there is a critical shortage of special education teachers. Completing this dual certification program dramatically increases a candidate’s marketability. In addition, all classrooms include students with special needs. We believe that all special education teachers need to know what regular classroom teachers know, and all regular classroom teachers need to know what special education teachers know. The combination of these two licensure content areas will prepare candidates to meet the needs of all students in their classrooms.

2. English learners- Schools continue to need teachers who are skilled in working with students who do not speak English. Goshen College offers programs in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) at K-6 and K-12 levels.

3. Conflict transformation – As school violence has increased, we have seen the need for teacher candidates to develop skills in conflict mediation. In collaboration with the peace, justice and conflict studies department, we are able to offer a series of three courses that equip our students in mediation, conflict transformation and systems analysis. We strongly recommend that all teacher education candidates complete this sequence, which results in a Goshen College Certificate in Conflict Transformation (see below).

4. Environmental education – Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center, a 1,189-acre nature conservancy owned by Goshen College, hosts more than 6,000 school children each year for outdoor education. All elementary education majors have the opportunity to work in environmental education as part of their program.

5. Laboratory kindergarten - Since 1959, a laboratory kindergarten has been operated by the education department in the Church-Chapel Building. Starting in 2008, the laboratory kindergarten became a joint partnership with the Goshen Community Schools, and is considered both a lab kindergarten for Goshen College students and a GCS kindergarten for children who function well within a language rich and experience rich interactive environment. The laboratory kindergarten is an integral part of teacher education at Goshen College. It provides opportunities for (1) observation of child development and behavior; (2) observation of teaching procedures; and (3) field placements at the kindergarten level.

6. Curriculum Library, Peace Curriculum Collection and Royer Reading Room - (Children’s Literature Collection) in the Harold and Wilma Good Library. This collection of materials provides excellent resources for teaching and research.

Admission to the Teacher Education program

Students generally apply for admission to the Goshen College Teacher Education program during the sophomore year. Admission to the program requires:

  • One of the following:
    • Successful completion of the reading, writing and mathematics sections of the Core Academic Skills Assessment (CASA)
    • ACT scores of 24 or higher
    • Math/Reading SAT scores of 1100 or higher
    • A master's degree
  • A review of the high school record
  • Successful performance in early fieldwork experiences
  • Supportive references
  • Demonstrated experience with children or youth
  • A written essay
  • Membership in a professional organization

Teacher Education students must maintain a 2.5 GPA overall and a 2.8 in their content area. All content related courses for the license content area must be passed with a C or higher. Because the field of education is continually changing, education courses taken more than 15 years prior to admission to the program will not be accepted for transfer credit.

Major in elementary education (K-6)

Modified Goshen Core program (63-76 credit hours)

Language arts
Core 110, Academic Voice 3
Core (various), Goshen Seminar 3
Educ 307, Children's and Adolescent Literature 3
Engl 204, Expository Writing (strongly recommended) 3

Science
Phys 215 NW, Climate Change3
Biol 340, Field Experience in Environmental Education 3

Mathematics
Math 131, Math Concepts for Elementary Classroom I 3
Math 132, Math Concepts for Elementary Classroom II 3

History and Social Science
Hist 105, American History I 3
Educ 310, Education Psychology: Elementary3
Hist 217 SW, Geography and Culture 3

Physical education
Core 115, Wellness for Life 1
Kin 309, Physical Education for Children 2

Humanities
Artistic World perspectives course3
Educ 330, Fine Arts for Children 3

Bible/religion/philsophy/peace studies
Core 120, Engaging the Bible 3
PJCS 210 PX, Transforming Conflict and Violence 3
Religious World perspectives course 3

International/intercultural education
Core 100, Identity, Culture & Community 3
Foreign language competency0-8
SST: international or on-campus alternativee (see planning and advising notes below) 9-14

Professional education courses (K-6) (37 credit hours)

  • Educ 201, Foundations of Education 3
  • Educ 300, Exceptional Learners: Elementary 3
  • Educ 301, Curriculum Studies: Math 2
  • Educ 303, Literacy I: Developmental 3
  • Educ 304: Curriculum Studies: Social Studies 2
  • Educ 308, Curriculum Studies: Science 2
  • Educ 344, Adaptation and Assessment for Diverse Learners 3
  • Educ 401, Child Development Practicum 1
  • Educ 402, Student Teaching: Elementary 12
  • Educ 406, Literacy II: Diagnostic 3
  • Educ 409, Elementary Education Seminar 3

Additional requirements for Exceptional Needs: Mild Intervention (K-6) (12 credit hours)

  • Educ 341, Mild Disabilities I 3
  • Educ 343, Mild Disabilities II 3
  • Educ 346, Special Education Issues1
  • Educ 415, Student Teaching: Exceptional Needs 5

Additional requirements for English Learners (K-6) (14 credit hours)

  • Engl 310, Introduction to Linguistics 3
  • Engl 315, The English Language 3
  • Engl 319, English Grammar1
  • Engl 320, Methods of TESOL 4
  • Engl 325, TESOL Practicum 3

Student learning outcomes

Graduates in education will:

  1. Comprehend the content disciplines to be taught in order to make connections, drawing relationships (a) within disciplines, (b) between disciplines, and (c) to students' lives.
  2. Communicate effectively in a variety of sign systems (e.g. oral, written, nonverbal, and media communication).
  3. Build a learning community based on the diversity of students' background and the ways in which they learn by (a) starting from each individual's strengths and cultural resources, (b) sharing responsibility for teaching and learning with all students, and (c) advocating for all students.
  4. Flexibly employ a wide variety of teaching and evaluation strategies that enable students to make meaning of content disciplines.
  5. Manage a classroom effectively, incorporating principles of peacemaking and positive behavior supports in a wide variety of settings.
  6. Sense a strong call to serve and to nurture students from a social justice perspective.
  7. Develop a sense of self as an educational facilitar and leader, continually reflecting on his/her own teaching in reference to Goshen College's guiding principles and his/her own emerging philosophy of education.
  8. Establish working and collegial relationships with schools, families, and community agencies to strengthen the learning environment.

Planning guide elementary education

First year

Identity, Culture & Community
Academic Voice
Goshen Seminar
American History
Wellness for Life
Engaging the Bible
Foundations of Education
Climate Change (NW Perspective)
Transforming Conflict & Violence (PX Perspective)
Geography & Culture (SW Perspective)

Second year Children’s and Adolescent Literature
Exceptional Students
Foreign language
Expository Writing (English Learners certificate; strongly recommended for others)
Artistic World course
Math Concepts for Elementary Classroom I & II
Educational Psychology
Physical Education for Children
Adaptation and Assessment for Diverse Learners
SST (spring) or Latino Studies
Linguistics(EL certificate)
English Language(EL certificate),
Third year Religious World course
Field Experience in Environmental Biology
Curriculum Studies: Math
Curriculum Studies: Science
Curriculum Studies: Social Studies
Mediation: Process, Skills & Theory (strongly recommended)
Fine Arts for Children
Child Development Practicum
Mild Disabilities I (Exceptional Needs Certificate)
Mild Disabilities II (Exceptional Needs Certificate)
TESOL Methods(EL certificate)
English Grammar(EL certificate)
Literacy I: Developmental
Literacy II: Diagnostic

Fourth year Global Issues Seminar(for alternate SST)
Elementary Education Seminar
Special Education Issues (Exceptional Needs Certificate)
Student Teaching (fall)
Student Teaching: Exceptional Needs (spring) (Exceptional Needs Certificate)
TESOL Practicum(EL Certificate)
Conflict-healthy Groups (strongly recommended)

Planning and advising notes

Teacher Education students are encouraged to participate in international SST when possible. Because teacher education programming includes significant intercultural training, the on-campus alternative for both elementary and secondary education majors is modified:

  • Language requirement: 102 level of any world language by placement test, course credit, or CLEP
  • Two courses selected from the on-campus alternative list (see International Education section of the course catalog)
  • Educ 315 (secondary) or Educ 406 (elementary)
  • Core 300, Global Issues Seminar.

Secondary education certification (grades 5-12 or K-12)

Professional education requirements (30 credit hours)

  • Educ 201, Foundations of Education 3
  • Educ 302, Exceptional Learners: Secondary 3
  • Educ 309, Educational Psychology: Secondary 3
  • Educ 314, Secondary Curriculum & Instruction: General Methods3
  • Educ 315, Secondary Curriculum & Instruction: Content Methods1*
  • Educ 321, Middle School Curriculum & Instruction 3
  • Educ 401, Child Development Practicum1**
  • Educ 403, Secondary Education Seminar 3
  • Educ 405, Student Teaching 12

*For K-12 licensure, a content area methods course in the major department is required instead of Educ 315. All 5-12 licensure candidates take Educ 314 and Educ 315.
**For K-12 only

Planning guide secondary education

First year Identity, Culture & Community
Wellness for Life
Academic Voice
Goshen Seminar
Engaging the Bible
Transforming Conflict and Violence (PX Perspectives)
Other Goshen Core courses
Introductory courses in major
Second year Goshen Core
Foundations of Education
Exceptional Learners: Secondary
Expository Writing (strongly recommended)
Mediation: Process, Skills and Theory (strongly recommended)
Courses in major
SST (spring)
Third year Educational Psychology: Secondary
Middle School Curriculum & Instruction
Goshen Core
Secondary Curriculum & Instruction: General Methods
Child Development Practicum (K-12 only)
Courses in major/content area

Fourth year Balance of Goshen Core
Balance of major and certification requirements
Student Teaching (fall)
Education Seminar
Conflict-healthy Groups (strongly recommended)

Planning and advising notes

Teacher education students are encouraged to participate in international SST when possible. Because teacher education programming includes significant intercultural training, alternate SST for education majors is modified. See elementary education advising notes above for details.

Certificate in conflict transformation for teachers

9 credit hours

The certificate in conflict transformation may be added to an elementary, middle school, or secondary education program. For further information, consult with a member of the teacher education faculty. Education students who wish to complete the conflict transformation studies minor at the conclusion of their certificate requirements should declare the minor and consult with a PJCS adviser for further details.

  • PJCS 210 PX, Transforming Conflict and Violence 3
  • PJCS 325, Mediation: Process, Skills and Theory 3-4
  • PJCS 426, Conflict-healthy Groups 3

Transition to Teaching (grades K-6 or 5-12)

Transition to Teaching (TtT) is an alternative certification program based on the premise that a candidate already has the content knowledge in the licensing area. Candidates must have completed an undergraduate degree in their field with at least a 3.0 GPA to be eligible for this program, based on Indiana state law. An assessment of content knowledge and skills will be completed for each candidate by the GC licensure adviser before entering the program. Additional course work may be a prerequisite for admission to the program. The 18 credit hours required for secondary and 24 credit hours required for elementary programs are for education coursework only.

Courses listed for two credit hours are taught jointly with three credit courses. TtT students pay for only two credit hours. Field experience is required for most classes.

Additional information about the Secondary Education TtT program is available at www.goshen.edu/education/Transition_to_Teaching.

Elementary education TtT curriculum

24 credit hours

First year fall semester

  • Educ 300, Exceptional Learners: Elementary 2
  • Educ 301, Curriculum Studies: Math 2
  • Educ 303, Literacy I: Developmental 3
  • Educ 401, Child Development Practicum1
First year spring semester
  • Educ 304, Curriculum Studies: Social Studies 2
  • Educ 307, Children's and Adolescent Literature 2
  • Educ 308, Curriculum Studies: Science 2
  • Educ 310, Educational Psychology: Elementary2
  • Educ 406, Literacy II: Diagnostic 2
Second year fall semester
  • Educ 410, Transition to Teaching Practicum 6

Secondary education TtT curriculum

18 credit hours

For licensure in business, English, French, German, journalism, mathematics, science, social studies, Spanish or theater arts. See the Teacher Education department website for licensure in music, physical education or visual arts.

First year fall semester

  • Educ 201, Foundations of Education 2
  • Educ 302, Exceptional Learners: Secondary 2
  • Educ 321, Middle School Curriculum & Instruction (field experience)3
First year spring semester
  • Educ 309, Educational Psychology 2
  • Educ 314, Secondary Curriculum & Instruction (field experience) 3
Second year fall semester
  • Educ 410, Transition to Teaching Practicum 6

Education courses


EDUC 201 Foundations of Education 3
Includes both campus and field study of learning environments, classroom management and instructional methods that meet the needs of diverse student populations. The course emphasizes race, gender, ethnicity, socio-economic status, family structures, language and exceptionalities from a social justice, critical perspective in light of the historical, philosophical, and social foundations of education.

EDUC 300 Exceptional Learners: Elementary 3
A study of students with exceptionalities within an academic setting offers practical information on meeting exceptional needs for students. Basic information on identification procedures, characteristics of different categories of special education, instructional methods, materials, adaptations, and accommodations to meet the needs of diverse learners is provided. The professional context and collaborative nature of designing and implementing educational services for exceptional students is explored. This course is tailored to meet exceptional and developmental needs of elementary school learners. Field placement in a diverse classroom setting required.

EDUC 301 Curriculum Studies:Math 2
A study of mathematics pedagogy with an emphasis on conceptually sound and developmentally appropriate lessons. Includes selecting and evaluating topics of study, multiple representations of information and instructional strategies, interdisciplinary teaching, and using school and community resources. Also includes differentiation and modifications for special needs students. Field experiences in diverse classrooms.

EDUC 302 Exceptional Learners: Secondary 3
A study of students with exceptionalities within an academic setting offers practical information on meeting exceptional needs for students. Basic information on identification procedures, characteristics of different categories of special education, instructional methods, materials, adaptations, and accommodations to meet the needs of diverse learners is provided. The professional context and collaborative nature of designing and implementing educational services for exceptional students is explored. This course is tailored to meet exceptional and developmental needs of middle and high school learners. Field placement in a diverse classroom setting required.

EDUC 303 Literacy I:Developmental 3
A study in the development of reading, writing, listening and speaking. Focus on research-based, standards-based, student-centered instructional methods, assessment and developing authentic engagement that leads to a life-long enjoyment of reading and writing in many modes and styles. A study of literacy development, methodology and curricular options for K-6 learners. Includes study of literacy and English language learners and differentiation. Field placement in diverse classroom settings.

EDUC 304 Curriculum Studies:Social Studies 2
A study of social studies curriculum and pedagogy with special emphasis on instruction and assessment, including connecting curriculum to student's prior learning, abilities and needs. Field experiences in diverse settings. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 307 Children's & Adolescent Literature 3
A survey of children's and young adolescent literature studying genre, authors, illustrators, the art of writing and illustration; extensive reading in the field as well as writing a book for children.

EDUC 308 Curriculum Studies:Science 2
A study of science pedagogy with an emphasis on conceptually sound and developmentally appropriate lessons. Includes selecting and evaluating topics of study; multiple representations of information and instructional strategies; and interdisciplinary teaching. Also includes study of ways to adapt curriculum for special needs students. Field experiences in diverse settings. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 309 Educational Psychology:Secondary 3
A study of human developmental theories, learning processes and individual preferences within the classroom offers theoretical information regarding the appreciation of student diversity and identity. Successful, research-based teaching practices are provided. Observation, hypothesis testing, and social scientist techniques are utilized to develop reflective teachers both in theoretical knowledge and practice within a field placement. Classroom management, motivation, and behavior analyses are emphasized. This course is tailored to meet the developmental needs of middle and high school learners. Field placement required.

EDUC 310 Educational Psychology:Elementary 3
A study of human developmental theories, learning processes and individual preferences within the classroom offers theoretical information regarding the appreciation of student diversity and identity. Successful, research-based teaching practices are provided. Observation, hypothesis testing, and social scientist techniques are utilized to develop reflective teachers both in theoretical knowledge and practice within a field placement. Classroom management, motivation, and behavior analyses are emphasized. This course is tailored to meet the developmental needs of elementary learners. Field placement required.

EDUC 314 Sec Curr & Instruct:General Methods 3
Includes both campus and field study of learning environments, classroom management, and instructional methods that meet the needs of diverse student populations particularly as they pertain to 9th-12th grades. Class sessions emphasize long-range planning, classroom management, multicultural teaching, instructional strategies and school reform. This course is concurrent with Educ 315 for 5-12 programs and the content area methodology course for K-12 programs. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 315 Sec Curr & Instruct:Content Methods 1
Subject-specific class sessions concentrate on curriculum and instruction in those subject areas. To be taken concurrently with Educ 314 the year prior to student teaching. Not required for ENL, music, art or physical education content areas. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 321 Middle School Curr & Instruction 3
Includes both campus and field study of learning environments, classroom management, and instructional methods that meet the needs of diverse student populations particularly as they pertain to 5th - 8th grades. Class sessions emphasize lesson planning, classroom management, multicultural teaching, instructional strategies, and school reform. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 330 Fine Arts for Children 3
A study of drama, art and music as it pertains to the elementary classroom; participatory experiences, integration across the arts and integration of the arts into the classroom.

EDUC 341 Mild Disabilities I 3
The study of assessment, identification, characteristics and instruction of elementary students with learning disabilities and mild cognitive disabilities provides a foundation for accommodating all students with learning challenges, regardless of eligibility for special education. Traditional and contemporary measures for assessment (including Response to Intervention) are explored and practiced within field placements. Theoretical perspectives surrounding collaboration and consultation arel examined and practiced within the classroom and a field placement. Field placement in a diverse setting required. Prerequisite: Educ 300 or 302

EDUC 343 Mild Disabilities II 3
The study of assessment, identification, characteristics and instruction of elementary students with emotional disabilities and autism provides a foundation for accommodating students with difficult behaviors regardless of eligibility for special education. Special Education law and legal procedures/legislative mandates (Functional Behavior Assessment/Behavior Intervention Plans) are explored and practiced within field placements. Field placement in a diverse setting is required. Prerequisite: Educ 300 or 302.

EDUC 344 Adapt & Assess for Diverse Learners 3
A study of multiple forms of informal and formal assessment provides a focus on selection, utilization, and interpretation of data to drive instruction. Scientifically-based interventions and instruction implementation for individuals and groups within diverse populations including general education, English Learners (EL), and special education (SPED) populations are addressed. Communication of information with parents and educator teams is a central focus. Prerequisite: Educ 300 or 302.

EDUC 346 Special Education Issues 1
Issues and debriefing within special education student teaching placements are addressed. To be completed concurrently with EDUC 415. Prerequisites: Educ 300 or 302, Educ 341, 343, and 344.

EDUC 401 Child Development Practicum 1
A study of child development. Focuses on learning theory and the importance of play for young children. Will include a field experience based on the application of developmentally appropriate practice. Required for elementary K-6, K-12 art, ENL, music and physical education content areas.

EDUC 402 Student Teaching:Elementary 12
At least 12 weeks of full-day student teaching in elementary schools under the supervision of a licensed elementary teacher and a faculty member from the GC education department. Includes several workshops on campus to reflect on important teaching issues.

EDUC 403 Secondary Education Seminar 3
An intensive three-week seminar immediately following Educ 405. Uses licensure portfolio as a frame and also focuses on: educational philosophy, classroom management and discipline, evaluation, integration of faith and teaching. Includes student projects and presentations, group work, variety of approaches to individual reflection on teaching, and preparation of the licensure and presentation portfolios. Concurrent: Educ 405.

EDUC 405 Student Teaching:Secondary 12
At least 12 weeks of full-day student teaching in a secondary school under the supervision of a teacher licensed in the student teacher's major teaching area and a GC faculty member. Includes several workshops on campus to reflect on important teaching issues.

EDUC 406 Literacy II: Diagnostic 3
A second course in literacy focusing on observing and recording children's literacy behaviors closely to be able to support struggling readers and writers and prevent further difficulties in developmentally appropriate ways. Emphasis on strategic, standards-based and student-centered teaching, grounded in the psychosocio-linguistic nature of language. Includes tutoring a struggling reader. Prerequisite: Educ 303. Enrollment limited to those who have been admitted to the teacher education program.

EDUC 407 Field Studies 1 (1-2)
Individual study, research or field experience on a variety of topics.

EDUC 408 Studies in Education 1
Individual study, research or field experiences on a variety of topics.

EDUC 409 Elementary Education:Seminar 3
An intensive three-week seminar immediately following Educ 402. Uses the licensure portfolio as a frame and also focuses on: educational philosophy, classroom management and discipline, evaluation, integration of faith and teaching. Includes student projects and presentations, group work and a variety of approaches to individual reflection on teaching and preparation of the licensure and presentation portfolios. Concurrent: Educ 402.

EDUC 410 Transition to Teaching Practicum 6
Student teaching for those enrolled in the Transition to Teaching program (TtT). Requires at least 12 weeks of full-day student teaching under a supervising teacher. Also includes preparation for licensure and formation of a presentation portfolio.

EDUC 415 Student Teaching:Exceptional Needs 5
Student teaching encompasses 200 hours in a mild disability context under the close supervision of a supervising teacher licensed for mild disabilities and a Goshen College faculty member. This experience focuses on assessment, lesson planning, instruction, and intervention. To be completed concurrently with Educ 346. Prerequisite: Educ 402.