Acadenics

 

Biological Sciences

Andy Ammons, Associate Professor of Biology, Lindsay Field Researcher
Dale Hess, Associate Professor of Agroecology and Ecological Field Station Director
Bill Minter, Assistant Professor of Environmental Science, Director of Land Management--Merry Lea
Jody Saylor, Associate Professor of Biology
Kris Schmidt, Assistant Professor of Biology
Ryan Sensenig, Department Chair, Associate Professor of Biological & Environmental Science, ES Program Director

Introduction

The Biological Sciences department offers three majors and one minor:

The department of Biological Sciences is committed to creating a community of learners which reflects Goshen College core values by:

  • striving for academic excellence and rigorous mastery of broad knowledge in the biological sciences
  • doing science through nurturing skills in research
  • promoting good stewardship of biological resources and committing to responsible and ethical practices in scientific inquiry and application
  • engaging in interdisciplinary scholarship that contributes scientific methodologies toward addressing current needs and problems in our world, both locally and globally.

The biological science faculty believes that providing our students with research opportunities is vital. Many students assist with professors' research during the school year, participate in the summer Maple Scholars research program, and/or travel to research sites such as Kenya and Florida. In addition to the excellent on-campus facility for research and teaching, Goshen College also offers exceptional locations for field work. Most field biology courses take place at the Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center of Goshen College, a 1,189-acre natural area 30 miles from campus. This preserve contains prairies, grasslands, upland forests, lowland forests, lakes, ponds and senescent bogs. The marine biology course is taken at the J. N. Roth Marine Biology Station, located on Long Key, Florida. Additional field courses are available through the Au Sable Institute, a field station with several U.S. locations and international programs.

The department collaborates closely with the Sustainability and Environmental Education Department (SEED), which offers complementary programs in Sustainability and Agroecology.

For more information visit these websites:

Career and postgraduate opportunities

All three majors in the Biological Sciences department prepare students for entrance into graduate programs.

Biology

Graduates with a biology major are active in human medicine and related areas, veterinary medicine, the agricultural sciences, cell biology, microbiology, marine biology, biotechnology, ecology, environmental analysis, science communications and science education, as well as basic research in numerous biological areas.

Molecular biology/biochemistry

Graduates with a molecular biology major are well-prepared for further study in medical or graduate school, or direct entry into the job market. Molecular biology provides a foundation for careers in biochemistry, molecular biology, behavior genetics, molecular genetics, biotechnology, genetics, molecular medicine, genomics, proteomics, molecular diagnostics, drug discovery and many related areas.

Environmental science & environmental studies

Courses in environmental science are designed to provide knowledge in areas of social structures, available natural resources, market forces, biodiversity status, landscape quality, cultural value, habitat and natural resource sustainability, and policy decisions. Graduates with an environmental science major may work in a wide variety of areas, such as sustainable agriculture, conservation biology, water/air quality analysis, environmental education, recovery of threatened or endangered species, and as consultants for local, regional, or national parties interested in sustainable development. Potential employers include church and community agencies, local, state and federal government, private advocacy, stewardship and land trust organizations.

A minor in environmental studies is an interdisciplinary minor appropriate for elementary and secondary teachers, regional planners, interpretive naturalists, park and camp managers, water and air resources analysts, environmental policy makers, bioinformation specialists and artists wishing to represent the natural world.

A master's degree program in environmental education is also available at Goshen College, based at Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center.

Informatics and biology

For students interested in applying computing to biological sciences, Goshen offers a major in informatics, with a cognate in biology. A minor in informatics is also available. See the Computing section of the course catalog.

Teacher education in life sciences

Teacher certification is available for grades 5-12 in two related areas. Courses needed in addition to biology major requirements are:

Life Sciences - Biol 200 or 201; Biol 203-204; Biol 302 or 303; and Biol 215 or 312.

Life Sciences and Chemistry - Biol 200 or 201; Biol 203-204; Biol 302 or 303; Biol 215 or 312; Chem 200; Chem 303-304; and Chem 310, 312, 415 or 430.

Also requires 30 credits of education courses, including a semester of student-teaching. The first education class, Educ 201, should be taken in May term of the first year or spring of the sophomore year. See the education department pages and the Teacher Education Handbook for more details.

Major in biology

42-46 credit hours

  • Biol 110, Ecology and Evolution 4
  • Biol 120, Cell Biology and Genetics 4
  • Biol 130, Organismal Biology 4
  • Biol 331, Junior Research Seminar 2
  • Biol 409, Internship (or alternate) 0-3
  • Biol 410, Biology Senior Seminar 1
  • Elective laboratory course4
    Biol 203, Human Anatomy & Physiology
    Biol 300, Microbial Biology
    Biol 302, Developmental Biology
    Biol 303, Vertebrate Physiology
    Biol 311, Advanced Molecular Genetics
    Biol 341, Advanced Cell Biology
  • Elective field biology course4
    Biol 200, General Zoology
    Biol 201, Botany
    Biol 304, Marine Biology
    Biol 308, General Entomology
    Biol 324, Advanced Field Ecology
    Biol 345, Forest Resources
    Biol 350, Ornithology
  • Additional biology elective course from lists above4
  • Chem 111-112, General Chemistry 8
  • Chem 303, Intro to Organic Chemistry 4
  • Quantitative course (one of the following)3-4
    Math 360, Biomathematics (3)
    Psyc 380, Statistics in Research (3)

Student learning outcomes

Graduates in biology will:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of core biological principles spanning all levels of hierarchy (cells to ecosystems).
  2. Provide examples of the fundamental role that evolutionary principles have in structuring biological systems from the cell to ecosystems.
  3. Design and implement experiments through developing research questions, designing research methods, and interpreting and analyzing data using statistical techniques.
  4. Use strong oral and writing skills to communicate scientific concepts.
  5. Articulate how faith and/or worldview informs personal bioethical attitudes and behaviors.
  6. Reflect on the systems-level connections between core biological principles.
  7. Demonstrate safety and competence in implementing basic biology laboratory and field skills: taxonomic identification, quantitative measurement, sterile technique, microscopy and slide use, and good experimental design.

Planning and advising notes

Students expecting to major in biology normally take General Chemistry, Chem 111-112, in the first year, but in some cases it may be postponed until the second year.

Planning guide

First year Goshen Core
Ecology & Evolution (fall)
Cell Biology & Genetics (spring)
Organismal Biology (spring)
Second year

Goshen Core
General Chemistry
Quantitative course
Biology electives
SST (spring or summer)

Third year Goshen Core
Intro to Organic Chemistry
Biology electives
Junior Research Seminar
SST (if not in second year)
Fourth year Balance of Goshen Core
Balance of major
Internship
Biology Senior Seminar

Major in molecular biology/biochemistry

55-58 credit hours

  • Biol 110, Ecology and Evolution 4
  • Biol 120, Cell Biology and Genetics 4
  • Biol 130, Organismal Biology 4
  • One of the following4
    Biol 311, Advanced Molecular Genetics
    Biol 341, Advanced Cell Biology
  • One of the following4
    Biol 302, Developmental Biology
    Biol 303, Vertebrate Physiology
  • Biol 331, Junior Research Seminar 2
  • Biol 409, Internship 0-3
  • Biol 410, Biology Senior Seminar 1
  • Chem 111-112, General Chemistry 8
  • Chem 303-304, Organic Chemistry 8
  • Chem 430, Biochemistry 4
  • Math 211, Calculus I 4
  • Phys 203-204, General Physics 8

Student learning outcomes

Graduates in molecular biology/biochemistry will:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of core biological principles spanning all levels of hierarchy (cells to ecosystems).
  2. Provide examples of the fundamental role that evolutionary principles have in structuring biological systems from the cell to ecosystems.
  3. Design and implement experiments through developing research questions, designing research methods, and interpreting and analyzing data using statistical techniques.
  4. Use strong oral and writing skills to communicate scientific concepts.
  5. Articulate how faith and/or worldview informs personal bioethical attitudes and behaviors.
  6. Demonstrate knowledge of the dynamic nature of interactions between the cell and its environment.
  7. Demonstrate knowledge of the cell as an integrated system that can cooperate and organize to form more complex integrated structures.
  8. Demonstrate safety and competence in laboratory skills: cell culture techniques, DNA/RNA isolation and analysis, gel electrophoresis, and microscopy.

Planning and advising notes

Recommended elective courses: Additional biology courses; Chem 200, Analytical Chemistry; Chem 310, Thermodynamics; and Chem 312, Quantum Mechanics I.

Planning guide

First year Goshen Core
Ecology & Evolution (fall)
Cell Biology & Genetics (spring)
Organismal Biology (spring)
General Chemistry
Second year Goshen Core
Calculus I
Organic Chemistry
Biology choice
SST (summer)
Third year Goshen Core
Biochemistry
General Physics
Junior Research Seminar
Biology choice
Fourth year Balance of Goshen Core
Balance of major
Internship
Biology Senior Seminar

Major in environmental science

53-58 credit hours (Core courses and one track)

Core courses (32-36 credit hours):

  • Biol 110, Ecology and Evolution 4
  • Biol 120, Cell Biology and Genetics 4
  • Biol 130, Organismal Biology 4
  • Biol 207, Roots of Environmental Crisis 3
  • Biol 324, Advanced Field Ecology 4
  • Biol 335, Natural Resources Policy Seminar 1
  • Biol 409, Internship 0-3
  • Biol 410, Biology Senior Seminar 1
  • Chem 111-112, General Chemistry 8
  • Psyc 380, Statistics in Research3

Agroecology track (22 credit hours)

  • Biol 201, Botany 4
  • Biol 308, General Entomology 4
  • Biol 331, Junior Research Seminar 2
  • Summer program at Merry Lea, four courses simultaneously: 12
    Biol 220, Soil Properties and Management
    Biol 230, Small Farm Management and Produce Marketing
    Biol 316, Vegetable Crops
    Biol 318, Agroecology

Ecology track (22 credit hours)

  • Biol 331, Junior Research Seminar 2
  • Plant course (one of the following) 4
    Biol 201, Botany
    Biol 345, Forest Resources
  • Animal course (one of the following) 4
    Biol 200, General Zoology
    Biol 304, Marine Biology
    Biol 308, General Entomology
    Biol 350, Ornithology
  • Chem 303, Intro to Organic Chemistry 4
  • Math 211, Calculus I4
  • Phys 203, General Physics I4

Sustainability track I (on campus) (22 credit hours)

  • Biol 331, Junior Research Seminar 2
  • Two field courses from the following8
    Biol 200, General Zoology
    Biol 201, Botany
    Biol 304, Marine Biology
    Biol 308, General Entomology
    Biol 345, Forest Resources
    Biol 350, Ornithology
  • Four courses selected from the following 12
    Biol 340, Field Experience in Environmental Education
    Econ 309, Environmental Economics
    Hist 345, Environmental History
    PoSc 210, Public Policy
    Soc 351, Sociology of the Environment

Sustainability track II (with semester at Merry Lea) (21 credit hours)

  • Econ 309, Environmental Economics3
  • Hist 345, Environmental History3
  • Fall Sustainability Semester at Merry Lea15
    Sust 300, Sustainability and Regeneration (3)
    Sust 309, Faith, Ethics and Eco-justice (3)
    Sust 313/Biol 313, Landscape Limnology (4)
    Sust 320, Environmental Policy & Politics (3)
    Sust 330, Environmental Problem-Solving (2)

Student learning outcomes

Graduates in environmental science will:

  1. Demonstrate knowledge of core biological principles spanning all levels of hierarchy (cells to ecosystems).
  2. Provide examples of the fundamental role that evolutionary principles have in structuring biological systems from the cell to ecosystems.
  3. Design and implement experiments through developing research questions, designing research methods, and interpreting and analyzing data using statistical techniques.
  4. Use strong oral and writing skills to communicate scientific concepts.
  5. Articulate how faith and/or worldview informs personal bioethical attitudes and behaviors.
  6. Discuss core ecological principles spanning levels of inquiry, including global ecology, ecosystem science, population ecology, community ecology, and physiological ecology.
  7. Identify the biosphere's most pressing environmental challenges and analyze the root causes of specific case studies using systems thinking.
  8. Demonstrate safe field and laboratory skills: taxonomy and identification of species, plant and animal monitoring techniques, habitat and soil surveys, GPS and GIS mapping.

Planning and advising notes

See SEED department pages for more information about Sustainability track II above.

Students expecting to major in environmental science normally take General Chemistry, Chem 111-112, in the first year, but in some cases it may be postponed until the second year.

Planning guide

First year Goshen Core
Ecology & Evolution (fall)
Cell Biology & Genetics (spring)
Organismal Biology (spring)
General Chemistry
Second & Third years Goshen Core
SST
Roots of Environmental Crisis (spring)
Statistics course
Natural Resources Policy Seminar
Advanced Field Ecology
Junior Research Seminar (or Sustainability Semester at Merry Lea)
Courses in specified track
Fourth year Courses in specified track
Balance of Goshen Core
Internship
Senior Seminar

Minor in environmental studies

18 credit hours

  • Biol 110, Ecology & Evolution 4
  • Biol 207, Roots of Environmental Crisis 3
  • Biol 335, Natural Resource Policy Seminar 1
  • One of the following field electives: 4
    Biol 200, General Zoology
    Biol 201, Botany
    Biol 304, Marine Biology
    Biol 308, General Entomology
    Biol 345, Forest Resources
    Biol 350, Ornithology
  • Two courses selected from the following: 6
    Biol 340, Field Experience in Environmental Education
    Econ 309, Environmental Economics
    Hist 345, Environmental History
    PoSc 210, Introduction to Public Policy
    Soc 351, Sociology of the Environment

Biological Science courses


BIOL 110 Ecology and Evolution 4
An introductory course that examines fundamental principles related to the evolution of life on earth and the ecological relationships between living things and their environment. The course also explores the application of ecological and evolutionary principles to enduring interdisciplinary questions: What does it mean to be human, created in God's image, and charged with restoring ecological systems? Offered every fall. A Natural World Perspectives course in the Goshen Core. Pre or Corequisite: Quantitative literacy.

BIOL 120 Cell Biology and Genetics 4
An introductory course that explores the cell as a complex and dynamic system shaped by its environment and genetic legacy. Gene regulation and expression, cell signaling, and cell division will be discussed, as well as the ethics of manipulating the cell for human applications. Both classical and modern genetic technologies will be experienced in the laboratory.

BIOL 130 Organismal Biology 4
An introductory course that integrates study of plant and animal forms to provide a broader understanding of the unity and diversity of life on earth. Students will gain insight into the basic principles of structure and function evident in complex life that indicate a common evolutionary history. This course will survey the physiological systems that govern life, with special emphasis on vascular plants and vertebrate animals (including humans).

BIOL 200 General Zoology 4
A survey of representative animal groups from Protozoa through the Chordata. Includes anatomy, morphology, systematics, life histories and ecology. Three lectures, one three-hour lab. Prerequisite: Biol 130 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 201 Botany 4
An introduction to the fundamental principles of plant biology, including structure, function, systematics, reproduction, and diversity. Three lectures and one three-hour lab. Prerequisite: Biol 130 or permission of instructor.

BIOL 203 Human Anatomy & Physiology 4
A study of the organ systems of the human body, their gross and microscopic structure and their functions. Laboratory demonstrations and dissections. Three lectures, one three-hour lab. Prerequisite: one semester of college chemistry.

BIOL 204 Human Anatomy & Physiology 3
A study of the organ systems of the human body, their gross and microscopic structure and their functions. Laboratory demonstrations and dissections. Three lectures, one three-hour lab. With permission of the instructor, biology majors may take Biol 204 for two hours of lecture only. Prerequisite: Biol 203 and one semester of college chemistry.

BIOL 205 Pollinators in Peril 3
What is causing a rapid decline in global pollinator populations? The answer is of immediate concern because many human crops are pollinated by bee, butterfly, bird, or bat species. Recent bee declines will be used as a model to understand the multiple forces impacting all pollinators. Labs will involve hands-on work with bee hives, in addition to field experiments. A Natural World Perspectives course in the Goshen Core. Pre or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy.

BIOL 206 Microbiology 3
A general study of microorganisms and their relations to health and disease, with practical applications valuable to the nurse. Includes the characteristics and activities of microorganisms, procedures for sterilization and disinfection; methods of growing and studying organisms; and techniques of diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases. Three lectures, one two-hour lab. Prerequisite: one semester of college chemistry.

BIOL 207 Roots of Environmental Crisis 3
What are the roots of our current environmental crisis? Can religious, economic, cultural, political, and/or biological worldviews help us understand the challenges? The course will analyze our local use of natural resources (both on campus and in Goshen city). The course will center on giving students opportunities to propose (and implement) restorative solutions. A Natural World Perspectives course in the Goshen Core. Pre or Corequisite: Quantitative Literacy.

BIOL 209 Field Experience 3 (1-3)
Practical experience in biology, typically in a relevant off-campus experience. Off-campus positions may include various types of work (employed or volunteer) in university, hospital or other medical, veterinary, agricultural and industrial facilities or nature centers and camps. Students are encouraged to develop their own ideas. Taken only as credit/no credit. Prerequisite: consent of adviser.

BIOL 210 Biology of the Sea 4
An introductory course that immerses students in exploring the ecology of the Florida Keys ecosystem. Suitable for non-majors. Biology majors should sign up for Biol 304. An off-campus course taught at the J.N. Roth Marine Biology station in Florida. Prerequisite: application process and consent of instructor. Moderate extra cost.

BIOL 220 Properties & Management of Soils 3
A comprehensive introduction to the field of soil science with emphasis on scientific principles and their application to solve practical soil management problems. Topics will include soil formation, soil physical properties, soil organisms and ecology, and practical nutrient management. Students are introduced to the diverse soils of Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center and gain hands-on soil management skills. This course constitutes one of the four courses taught during the summer agroecology program. Permission of the Agroecology Program Director is required.

BIOL 230 Small Farm Mgmt/Produce Marketing 3
This course teaches skills necessary for making a farm or market garden an economic success, including finding land, farm business planning and start up, planning appropriate marketing strategies for selected crops, and managing income and expenses. Community supported agriculture (CSA) and other direct marketing options will be studied and local farmers and entrepreneurs will share from their experience. This course constitutes one of the four courses taught during the summer agroecology program. Permission of the Agroecology Program Director is required.

BIOL 300 Microbial Biology 4
Study of the anatomy, physiology and ecology of microorganisms, particularly bacteria, protists, and viruses. Lab instruction will include techniques involved in isolating, culturing and quantifying microbial organisms found in soil, water, food, and the human body. Three lectures, one three-hour lab. Prerequisites: Biol 110, 120, and 130.

BIOL 302 Developmental Biology 4
Principles of developmental biology with the study of developing systems in both vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms as a focus. Material covers a range of topics including classic embryology, developmental genetics, cancer and aging. Three lectures and one lab per week. Prerequisite: Biol 110, 120 and 130.

BIOL 303 Vertebrate Physiology 4
A concentrated study of the principles of vertebrate physiology. Material covered includes various topics of significance in the biomedical field, such as cellular, nervous, muscular and cardiovascular physiology. Laboratory activities will cover the same topics. Three lectures and one laboratory session per week. Prerequisities: Biol 110, 120, and 130 or Biol 203, 204.

BIOL 304 Marine Biology 4
An intensive field-based class that explores the marine ecology of the Florida Keys. Includes a comprehensive collaborative field research project. An off-campus course taught at the J. N. Roth Marine Biology station in Florida. Prerequisites: Biol 110, application process and consent of instructors. Moderate extra cost.

BIOL 308 General Entomology 4
A general study of insect structure, development, classification and habits. Laboratory sessions particularly directed at identification of insects and their economic roles. Three lectures and one three-hour lab per week. Prerequisite: Biol 110. Biol 200 strongly recommended.

BIOL 311 Advanced Molecular Genetics 4
The study of modern biotechnology, genes, and genomes. Gene expression and cell physiology will be explored. Genetic tools that diagnose human disease and determine levels of gene flow in populations will be utilized. Topics of interest include linkage analysis, cancer genetics, microarrays, genomic imprinting, DNA fingerprinting, and genome sequencing. Labs include DNA cloning, RNA isolation, protein manipulation, ELISA, and blotting. Prerequisite: Biol 120.

BIOL 313 Landscape Limnology 4
(Cross-listed with SUST 313) This course examines the physical, chemical and biological variables of freshwater lakes, streams and wetlands, which influence living organisms in these aquatic ecosystems. Emphasis on how their interactions contribute to the environmental, economic and social health of watersheds that make up every landscape. Taught as part of Sustainability Semester in Residence. A Natural World course in the Goshen Core.

BIOL 316 Vegetable Crops 3
This course provides an understanding of plant growth and development and focuses on the basic principles of sustainable vegetable production in both field and greenhouse environments. Topics will include seed biology and plant development, bed preparation and planting, plant propagation techniques, extending the growing season, and handling crops after harvest. Students will practice production techniques at Merry Lea Sustainable Farm. This course constitutes one of the four courses taught during Merry Lea's Agroecology Summer Intensive. Permission of the Agroecology Program Director is required.

BIOL 318 Agroecology 3
Study of sustainable food production, investigating the ecological impacts of manipulating natural systems to produce food, feed, fiber and medical products. Ecological concepts are discussed and their principles applied to sustainable food production. Topics will include the theoretical basis of agroecology, alternative agricultural production systems, and ecological management of diseases, insect pests and weeds. This course constitutes one of the four courses taught during the summer agroecology program. Permission of the Agroecology Program Director is required.

BIOL 319 Human Pathophysiology 3
An introductory study of the biology of human diseases. Examines causes of disease and bodily response processes. A survey of both disorders that affect the body as a whole and disease of individual organs will be conducted. Intended for students in allied health professions. Prerequisite: Biol 203, 204 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 324 Advanced Field Ecology 4
This course applies ecological paradigms toward restoration of degraded and damaged systems. Field components at Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center will allow students to gain experience in a variety of restoration techniques relevant to prairie, wetland, and forest habitats. Team-taught by professors with interests in merging theoretical ecology with practical ecological restoration. Prerequisite: Biol 110.

BIOL 330 Biology Research Seminar 1
An exploration of opportunities in research at the undergraduate level, graduate level and for a career. Includes an introduction of ongoing departmental research programs, discussion and demonstrations by current student participants of their projects, examination of new discoveries reported in the current literature and discussions of opportunities for student participation in our research program for advanced biology credit.

BIOL 331 Junior Research Seminar 2
A weekly seminar focusing on scientific inquiry skills such as reviewing the literature, forming research questions, designing experiments, analyzing data, and writing scientific papers. Students will gain approval for a research project to be completed by the end of the senior year, in collaboration with a faculty member. Pre-requisite: junior standing.

BIOL 335 Natural Resources Seminar 1
A broad survey course that investigates policies regulating natural resources. The class covers the rationale, content, process and origins of contemporary state, tribal, federal and international resource policies.

BIOL 340 Field Experience Environmental Educ 2 (1-3)
Participants will develop and conduct interpretive programs in nature study for visiting school groups; observe practices related to managing a natural area and participate in discussions of environmental issues. Instruction takes place at the Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center. Enrollment by permission of instructor only.

BIOL 341 Advanced Cell Biology 4
Explores eukaryotic cell physiology at the molecular level. Intracellular transport, cell communication, the cell cycle, cytoskeleton function, and tissue formation will be addressed. Laboratory experiences will include microscopy, chromatography, protein purification, and cell culture techniques. Prerequisite: Biol 120.

BIOL 345 Forest Resources 4
Study of the function, value and use of forest resources, including management of forests for harvest, water quality, biodiversity, aesthetics and recreation. Significant time spent in the field at forestland sites. Prerequisite: Biol 110.

BIOL 350 Ornithology 4
Natural history, taxonomy, and conservation of birds. Includes much work on visual and aural identification of birds in the field. Taught during the May term at Merry Lea Environmental Learning Center. Prerequisite: Biol 110.

BIOL 375 Topics in Biology: 4 (1-4)
Classroom and/or laboratory study in a major area of biology not covered by regular courses. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

BIOL 400 Biology Research 1 (1-4)
On-campus participation in a research project. Prerequisite: consent of faculty supervisor.

BIOL 409 Biology Internship 3 (0-3)
Practical experience in biology including professional levels of responsibility. Activities may be similar to those described for Biol 209, but with a higher degree of independent responsibility in the experience, as would be appropriate for a traditional apprenticeship. Students are encouraged to develop their own ideas. Taken only as credit/no credit. Prerequisite: consent of adviser.

BIOL 410 Biology Senior Seminar 1
A weekly seminar focused on completing the capstone senior research project. Topics will include data analysis, research writing, communicating project results to the wider community, and the interdisciplinary nature of biological science. Led by all department faculty members. Prerequisite: Biol 331.